Broadly, esophageal spasm can be divided into 2 major variants that are distinct entities: (1) diffuse esophageal spasm and (2) hypertensive peristalsis. Esophageal spasms are painful contractions within the muscular tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). It feels like sudden, severe chest pain that lasts from a few minutes to hours. Esophageal spasms typically occur only occasionally and might not need treatment. But sometimes the spasms are frequent and can prevent food and liquids from traveling through the esophagus. These spasms interfere with your ability to eat or drink, treatments are available.
Signs and symptoms of esophageal spasms include: Squeezing pain in your chest. The pain is often intense, and you might mistake it for heart pain (angina), difficulty swallowing, sometimes related to swallowing specific substances, such as red wine or extremely hot or cold liquids, feeling that an object is stuck in your throat, return of food and liquids back up your esophagus (regurgitation).
Treatment depends on the frequency and severity of your esophageal spasms. Managing any underlying conditions, Medications to relax your swallowing muscles, Surgery (myotomy), Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) are the major treatments given to the patients.
The incidence of esophageal spasm is about 1 case in 100,000 populations per year. Because the symptoms are mild (or even absent) in many patients, true incidence is not known. Esophageal spasm seemingly is more common in whites, and it may be more common in women than in men. However, esophageal spasm is rare in children, and incidence increases with age.