Hyperopia is also known as ?farsightedness? or ?hypermetropia?. It is an ocular condition in which the refracting power of the eye causes light rays entering the eye to have a focal point that is posterior to the retina while accommodation is maintained in a state of relaxation. Visual acuity is better at far (e.g. 6 meters) distances than at near (e.g. 0.33 meters) distances. Hyperopia may also be categorized by the degree of refractive error: Low hyperopia is +2.00D or less, Moderate hyperopia ranges from +2.25 to +5.00D, and High hyperopia is +5.25D or more. High hyperopia may be associated with blurring of the optic disk margin, known as pseudopapilledema. It can be differentiated from true papilledema by the presence of normal caliber vasculature and normal appearing juxtaposed retina.
Farsightedness may mean: Nearby objects may appear blurry, You need to squint to see clearly, You have eyestrain, including burning eyes, and aching in or around the eyes, You experience general eye discomfort or a headache after a prolonged interval of conducting close tasks, such as reading, writing, computer work or drawing. Wearing corrective lenses treats farsightedness by counteracting the decreased curvature of your cornea or the smaller size (length) of your eye. Types of corrective lenses include: Eyeglasses and contact lenses. The other mode of treatment is refractive surgeries (Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK), Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), Conductive keratoplasty (CK)).
Physiologic (Simple and Functional) hyperopia is much more common than pathologic hyperopia. Decreased axial length is the most common etiology for hyperopia. Overall prevalence of hyperopia is around 10%, approximately 14 million people, in the United States. Most full-term infants are mildly hyperopic. By age 6-9 months approximately 4-9% of infants are hyperopic and by age 12 months the prevalence is approximately 3.6%. Infants with moderate to high hyperopia (greater than +3.50D) are up to 13 times more likely to develop strabismus by age 4 if left uncorrected. There is no known gender difference in the prevalence of hyperopia. Family history increases risk of hyperopia. Hyperopia is associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, prematurity, and low birth weight.