Intestinal flukes (F buski) cause inflammation, ulceration, and mucous secretion at the site of attachment. Severe infections may also cause intestinal obstruction or malabsorption, leading to hypoalbuminemia, protein-losing enteropathy, and impaired vitamin B-12 absorption. F buski attaches to the duodenal and jejunal mucosa; however, in severe infections, it may attach to the ileum or colon.
Most symptoms are light and asymptomatic. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, anemia, ascites, toxemia, allergic responses, sensitization caused by the absorption of the worms' allergenic metabolites (may eventually cause death of patient), and intestinal obstruction.
Praziquantel is the drug of choice for treatment. Heavy infections are more difficult to treat. Studies of the effectiveness of various drugs for treatment of children with F. buski have shown tetrachloroethylene as capable of reducing faecal egg counts by up to 99%. Other anthelmintics that can be used include thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and pyrantel pamoate. oxyclozanide, hexachlorophene and nitroxynil are also highly effective.
F. buski is endemic in Asia including China, Taiwan, South-East Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia and India. It has a prevalence of up to 60% in India and mainland China and has an estimated 10 million human infections. Infections occur most often in school-age children or in impoverished areas with a lack of proper sanitation systems. A study revealed that F. buski was endemic in central Thailand, affecting approximately 2,936 people due to infected aquatic plants called water caltrops and the snail hosts which were associated with them. The infection, or the eggs which hatch in the aquatic environment, were correlated with the water pollution in different districts of Thailand such as Ayuthaya Province. The high incidence of infection was prevalent in females and children ages 10–14 years of age.