Previous research has shown that the repair of a recurrent inguinal hernia is subject to a greater risk of additional recurrence. Further, bilateral inguinal hernia is subject to a greater recurrence risk than unilateral inguinal hernia. These increased risks may be due to certain anatomical difficulties that complicate the surgical approach in these types of patients. Some clinicians have suggested that laparoscopic approaches are better suited to recurrent and bilateral hernias, and in we delineate separate comparisons for primary, bilateral, and recurrent hernia.
Measurement of rapid-turnover proteins has an established place in nutrition assessment and is partly dependent on the zinc metallo-enzymes involved. We investigated the reference values of rapid turnover proteins and zinc in Japanese children. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a single center. We collected data from children aged 0 to 12 years with inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or hydrocele of the spermatic cord, who had body mass index z scores of -2 to 2. The standard references (mean±2 SD) of transthyretin were 11.5-21.5 mg/dL in infants (<=1.5 years), 13.6-21.5 mg/dL in preschool children (1.6-6 years), and 12.3-23.4 mg/dL in preadolescent children (6.1-12 years).