Pathophysiology: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It is also called oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of nosocomial infection than the general public.S. aureus most commonly colonizes under the anterior nares.
Statistics: Investigators studied MRSA infection rate at a general hospital in Japan in all 65,135 inpatients of Sendai Kousei Hospital from January 2004 to December 2008. There were 621 MRSA-positive patients. MRSA prevalence among strains of S. aureus was 45.5% (621/1,365). The rate of MRSA detection in inpatients was 0.953/100 inpatients. Of the 621 patients from whom MRSA was isolated, 51 (8.2%) had an MRSA infection (MRSA infection rate 0.078/100 inpatients). Findings suggest that there is a low incidence of infection in a general hospital in Japan.
Treatment: Healthcare providers can treat many S. aureus skin infections by draining the abscess or boil and may not need to use antibiotics. Draining of skin boils or abscesses should only be done by a healthcare provider. For mild to moderate skin infections, incision and drainage by a healthcare provider is the first-line treatment. Before prescribing antibiotics, your provider will consider the potential for antibiotic resistance. Thus, if MRSA is suspected, your provider will avoid treating you with beta-lactam antibiotics, a class of antibiotic observed not to be effective in killing the staph bacteria.
Some in vitro studies with honey have identified components in honey that kill MRSA.
Ocean-dwelling living sponges produce compounds that may make MRSA more susceptible to antibiotics.