Colonization of the nonpathogenic amebae occurs after ingestion of mature cysts in fecally-contaminated food, water, or fomites. Excystation occurs in the small intestine and trophozoites are released, which migrate to the large intestine. The trophozoites multiply by binary fission and produce cysts, and both stages are passed in the feces. Total of 2,643 patients were examined of their stool for parasitic infections by both cellophane thick smear and formalin-ether concentration techniques from August 1983 to December 1985. Out of them, 73.6% were free from any parasite, 22.6% were ova positive and 4.0% cyst positive.
Prevention of the disease is by separating food and water from faeces and by proper sanitation measures. There is no vaccine. There are two treatment options depending on the location of the infection. If present in tissues is treated with either metronidazole, tinidazole, nitazoxanide, dehydroemetine or chloroquine, while luminal infection is treated with diloxanide furoate or iodoquinoline. Infection with single or multiple species of intestinal protozoa is common in humans and can result in either asymptomatic colonization or symptoms of intestinal disease. Entamoeba histolytica serves as a paradigm for invasive colonic protozoal infection.