Separation anxiety disorder is a mental health disorder that usually begins in childhood and is characterized by worrying that is out of proportion to the situation of temporarily leaving home or otherwise separating from loved ones. Approximately 4%-5% of children and adolescents suffer from separation anxiety disorder.
The symptoms of separation anxiety includes persistently and excessively fearful or reluctant to be alone or without major attachment figures at home or without significant adults in other settings, persistent reluctance or refusal to go to sleep without being near a near a major attachment figure or to sleep away from home, repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation, repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomachaches, nausea, or vomiting) when separation from major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated, repeated nightmares about being separated from the people who are important to the sufferer.
Taijin kyofusho (TKS) has frequently been discussed as a culture-specific expression of SAD that is believed to be particularly prevalent in Japanese and Korean cultures. Similar to individuals suffering from SAD, individuals with TKS are concerned about being observed and consequently avoid a variety of social situations. It has been assumed that the major difference from typical SAD in Western cultures is that a person with TKS is concerned about doing something, or presenting an appearance, that will offend or embarrass the other person. In contrast, SAD is defined as the fear of embarrassing oneself. Therefore, investigators have referred to this as the offensive subtype of TKS because it is characterized by two features considered atypical of social anxiety disorder: the belief that one displays physical defects and/or socially inappropriate behaviors and the fear of offending others, termed as an allocentric focus of social fears