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Streptococcus Pneumonia Infection

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  • Streptococcus pneumonia infection

    Streptococcus pneumonia infection also known as pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. These bacteria can affect to the different parts of the body causing different signs and symptoms depending on the site of infection. Pneumonia i.e., infection of the lungs, ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis i.e., infection of the covering around the brain, spinal cord and bacteremia covering blood stream infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae is communicable and spread from the infected person through coughing, sneezing, and close contact. The symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, confusion and disorientation, sensitivity to light, joint pain, chills, ear pain, sleeplessness, and irritability. In extreme cases Streptococcus pneumoniae infection can cause brain damage, hearing loss and death. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection mainly tends to occur in the elderly or in people with serious underlying medical conditions. Groups such as children under 2 years of age, children in childcare and Torres Strait Islander people. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is usually diagnosed by microscopic examination and growth of bacteria from blood, sputum or other specimens. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing in a pathology laboratory is also used.

  • Streptococcus pneumonia infection

    We evaluated 103 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) encountered in 99 children (two developed the disease twice and one, three times) treated in the northern district of Hokkaido (Kamikawa and Soya sub prefecture) from April 2000 until March 2010, before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The main diseases were as follows: pneumonia, 54 cases (52.9%); occult bacteremia, 34 cases (33.3%); meningitis, five cases (4.9%). There were 42 cases during the first half of the study period (from April 2000 to March 2005) and 61 during the second half (from April 2005 to March 2010). The IPD morbidity rate for the 10-year period was 41.3 per 100,000 population in children <5 years and 79.2 per 100,000 population in children <2 years. Serotype analysis of the 77 strains was performed. The most frequent serotype isolated was 6B (31.2%), followed by 23F (14.3%), 19F (13.0%), 9V (7.8%), 6A (7.8%), and 14 (3.9%). The number of strains that could potentially be covered by heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was 55 (71.4%), and the number of strains that could potentially be covered by 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was 64 (83.1%). Analysis of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes was performed of the 82 strains. The percentages of resistant bacteria caused by PBP gene mutations were 42.7% (35 strains) for gPRSP, 48.8% for gPISP (40 strains), and 8.5% for gPSSP (7 strains). Symptoms widely vary in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, mild illness to febrile pneumonia to respiratory distress requiring ICU-level care. Factors such as age, type of symptoms, and duration of symptoms, underlying or chronic illness, and compliance with treatment, appropriate home care and potential for worsening disease are considered in determining the need and level of hospitalization.

  • Streptococcus pneumonia infection

    Most hospitalized should be treated with parenteral antibiotics in addition to medications for pulmonary symptoms, pain medications, intravenous fluids or parenteral or enteral nutrition, oxygen, and additional medications, as indicated on an individual basis. The use of steroids in adult patients with bacterial meningitis is recommended with caution, as they may decrease CSF antibiotic concentration; patients with meningitis treated with steroids should be monitored closely. Steroids can be considered prior to antibiotic therapy in children aged 6 weeks and older with pneumococcal meningitis. They should be given before or at the time of first dose of antibiotics. Intravenous fluids, parenteral or enteral nutrition, and other medications should be used as indicated clinical instances. A patient with pneumococcal bacteremia is treated with appropriate antibiotics. Children who undergo workup to rule out serious bacterial illness but who are not treated initially with antibiotics and whose cultures subsequently grow S pneumoniae are often asymptomatic and have negative repeat blood culture findings at follow-up. Repeat blood cultures should always be obtained in patients with S pneumoniae bacteremia. Patients with cardiac, skin or soft-tissue, bone, and joint infections with S pneumoniae should usually be admitted to the hospital for observation, intravenous antibiotic therapy, expedition of further workup and evaluation of location. Major Research on Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is been done in Japan by QY Research, Medical Mycology Research Center.

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