Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles.
The age-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased significantly from 1988 to 2002 in men (14.6% in 1988 to 20.8% in 2002, P < 0.001) and women (9.1% in 1988 to 11.2% in 2002, P = 0.002). A significant rise in the age-adjusted prevalence of pre diabetes was also observed in both sexes (26.2% in 1988 to 35.3% in 2002, P < 0.001 for men; 22.5% in 1988 to 25.1% in 2002, P = 0.04 for women). In age-stratified analysis, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased markedly over time in men aged 60–69 and 70–79 years (both P < 0.001) and women aged 70–79 years (P = 0.02).
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.The Clinical Research in Type 2 Diabetes program supports human studies across the lifespan aimed at understanding, preventing and treating type 2 diabetes (T2D).