Typhoid fever is also known simply as typhoid, is a symptomatic bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi.Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days.Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur. Diarrhea and vomiting are uncommon.Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In the year 2006, 96 cases were reported in Japan.The prevalence rate was 0.1%. Thehighese prevalence rate was reported in the year 2004 that is 152 cases were reported.
A typhoid vaccine can prevent about 50% to 70% of cases. Treatment of disease is with antibiotics such as azithromycin, fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins.Resistance to these antibiotics has been developing, which has made treatment of the disease more difficult. Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events.