Pathophysiology: Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection where inflammation of the stomach and intestines occur from a virus. It is also known as “stomach flu”. This infection may lead to watery diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and sometimes fever. It occurs by contact with a diseased person or by intake of contaminated food or water.Clinicians have categorized it into: Sporadic gastroenteritis, Epidemic gastroenteritis (food-borne or water-borne pathogens), and Acute gastroenteritis.
Disease Statistics: According to a recent research published in 2015, Rotavirus and norovirus were the two most common viruses detected almost equally in children under 5 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. G1P, G2P, G3P, and G9P are the main rotavirus strains. Norovirus GII.4 strain was involved in most outbreaks in Japan.
Treatment: Viral gastroenteritis is diagnosed by physical exam such as stool sample to test for virus. There are no specific medical treatments and initially it involves lot of self-care measures. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viruses. The illness may be due to parasitic or bacterial infection. Primary goal is to prevent dehydration by providing enough water and fluids to the diseased body. Food is offered in small amounts. In case of small children, food is supplied intravenously.
Research: Research group involved Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo; Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo and Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.