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Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
East Carolina University Brody School of Medicine
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Journal of Anaesthesiology and Pain Research is an International peer-reviewed, open access Journal that extensively deals with clinical and basic research, patient care, health economics and relevant policies to update all practitioners in pain management, such as anaesthesiologists, interventional pain physicians, neurosurgeons, neurologists, and any professionals who are interested in pain research and management.
The journal accepts relevant and timely organized manuscripts for publication in the specific subject areas. Articles containing original research, timely reviews of various associated subjects, short communication, Letter-to-Editor, Case report, Perspective, Commentary, are welcome from the pioneer authors in the relevant disciplines. The journal also considers evidential reports highlighting new and significant clinical observations, innovative treatment methods, disease management etc.
Topics covered in this Journal includes but not limited to anesthesiology, pain research, pain mechanism, anaesthesia in relation to surgery, anaesthesia pertaining to Dentistry, treatment and management of Traumatic conditions, application and implementation of Anaesthesia in Cardiothoracic surgery, Vascular diseases etc. Research outcomes representing mechanisms of anesthetic process, application and dosage of anesthesia in relation to Critical Care, perioperative medicine will be considered too. Relevant information on anesthesia administration, monitoring biomedical equipment, neuropathic pain, nociceptive pain, post-operative pain, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs will be covered under the scope of the journal.
The mission of the Journal is to offer the latest scientific information on pain management by providing a forum for clinical researchers, scientists, clinicians, and other health professionals.
It is crucial for clinical assessment as it serves as a guide to determine the treatment for specific pain location. Pain mechanisms are classified into nociceptive, neuropathic and inflammatory. Nociceptive represents the injury of tissues such as skin, muscles. Neuropathic is caused by a primary lesion in the somatosensory nervous system. Inflammatory is a result of activation and sensitization of the nociceptive pain pathway by mediators released at a site of tissue inflammation. However pain can have many causes and there are possible treatments for it.
It can also be referred as Pain Medicine. It is an interdisciplinary approach for easing the chronic pain and improving the quality of life. Pain management depends on the history of pain, intensity of pain, duration of pain, aggravating and conditions involved in causing the pain. X-fluoroscopy or ultrasound is more precisely used to locate site of medication which can reach the appropriate location.
Anesthesia is administered under optimal conditions for surgery. A pre-anesthesia check is done prior to administration of anesthesia. Drugs used in anesthesia are called as anesthetics. There are major and minor risks in administering anesthesia such as pulmonary embolism, post-operative nausea and vomiting. The anesthetist chooses and determines the dosage of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia appropriate to the type of procedure carried on and the particular patient.
Dental anesthesia is a type of local anesthesia with sedation and general anesthesia. The inferior alveolar nerve block or mandibular blocks is more often anesthetized in dental procedures. Lidocaine is most commonly used as local anesthetic in dentistry. These agents usually blocks sensation of inferior alveolar nerve which runs through mandible region. Dentist usually use dental anesthesia to numb a part of mouth during dental procedures or dental surgeries.
It is multidisciplinary medical field related to perioperative care of surgical patients. It is medical patient care from the time of contemplation of surgery to recuperate from surgical period to improve the surgical outcome. Surgeon, anesthetist, intensivist and physician work closely in such field. However anesthetist play major role in perioperative medicine from pre anesthesia check prior to surgery.
Patient with significant trauma requires emergency treatment. The most common causes of trauma are blood loss, shock, catastrophic thoracic injury or head injuries. Patient may continue to deteriorate until they receive trauma treatment or definite surgical care. The goal of trauma management is to provide efficient trauma management and expeditious transport to hospital. Rapid emergency medical services (EMS) response times and advanced pre-hospital care can lead to effective trauma management.
It is type of anesthesia to induce the absence of sensation of specific part of body. It allows patients to undergo minor surgical procedures with reduced pain. Local anesthetics are used in combination with sedation to reduce stress levels. It allows surgeon to carry out procedure with distress.
Patients under anesthesia are under continuous monitoring for patient safety to avoid risks due to anesthesia. Patients undergoing anesthesia needs heart rate, oxygen levels, blood pressure, carbon dioxide levels and other vital signs are to be monitored. Anesthesia monitors are widely used for monitoring vital signs.
General anaesthesia usually aims for lack of movements, unconsciousness and blunting of stress responses. It takes entire body of patient to state of unconsciousness and has no awareness of surgery performed. Its main purpose is immobility, hypnosis, amnesia and analgesia. It acts on central nervous system at multiple levels.
Surgery is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Anesthesia drugs are also known as “anesthetics” used to induce anesthesia to avoid pain and discomfort during and after surgery. Benzodiazepines, Diazepam, Lorazepam, Midazolam, Etomidate, Ketamine, Propofol. These drugs can be administered intravenously. We have different class of anesthetics in practice such as general anesthetic, local anesthetic, regional anesthetic. Lidocaine, propaine, cocaine, desflurane, xenon are few anesthetics used to induce anesthesia to avoid pain and discomfort.
Pain killers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain. Pain killers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain. Most painkillers also stimulate portions of the brain associated with pleasure. Thus, in addition to blocking pain, they produce a “high.”
The most powerful prescription painkillers are called opioids, which are opium-like compounds. They are manufactured to react on the nervous system in the same way as drugs derived from the opium poppy, like heroin.
The most commonly abused opioid painkillers include oxycodone, hydrocodone, meperidine, hydromorphone and propoxyphene. There are many different pain medicines, and each one has advantages and risks. Some types of pain respond better to certain medicines than others. Each person may also have a slightly different response to a pain reliever.
Although the quality research and practice of safe and effective anesthesia has minimized its side effects, but more work has to be done to avoid few side effects such as after subjected to anesthesia patients might feel sick, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, faint, sore throat which may last for few hours to few days based on the individual and anesthetics.
Anesthesia is a safe procedure to induce unconsciousness facilitating medical and surgical procedures. But some complications also evolve on application of anesthesia such as shivering, fainting, temporary mental confusions, etc. which may last for few hours to few days. In rare cases stroke, heart attack, bladder problem and death may lead takes place.
Chronic pain has the active pain for more than six months unlike acute pain. Chronic pain can be mild or excruciating, episodic or continuous, merely inconvenient or totally incapacitating. Chronic pain describes pain that lasts more than three to six months, or beyond the point of tissue healing. Chronic pain is usually less directly related to identifiable tissue damage and structural problems. There are at least two different types of chronic pain problems - chronic pain due to an identifiable pain generator (e.g. an injury), and chronic pain with no identifiable pain generator (e.g. the injury has healed) often termed “chronic benign pain”. Chronic pain and depression are two of the most common health problems that health professionals encounter. The type of depression with chronic pain is referred to as major depression or clinical depression.
Surgical anesthesia can be defined as anesthesia induced during surgery to avoid pain and discomfort. Before going to surgery, anesthesia is given by administering anesthetics based on requirement to avoid pain and discomfort. Loss of consciousness is a temporary and reversible.
The major role of an anesthesiologist during the surgery includes administer proper anesthesia for the patient during surgical or medical procedures, monitor patient sedation status during procedure, implementation of post-operative pain-management medication.
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