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The Journal “Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery” is devoted in publishing original articles of high quality based on clinical aspects and neurosurgery which helps the scientific community by welcoming articles on the current developments and recent advancements in the field. The Journal is an open access and Editorial board follows a rapid two-level blinded peer review process that makes sure that the articles being published meets the journal standards. The main objective of the journal is to provide a platform for scientists around the globe to share their knowledge in clinical neurology and neurosurgery. Some of the major areas of interests are:
1. Parkinson’s Disease: It is a chronic, progressive movement disorder in which symptoms continue and get worse with time. Parkinson’s is characterized by death of essential nerve cells/neurons. This disease primarily affects neurons in the susbstantia nigra area of the brain. Few of the dying neurons produce dopamine, which sends messages to that part of the brain which controls movement and co-ordination. As the disease progresses, the amount of dopamine in the brain decreases leaving the individual unable to control movement in a normal manner.
2. Huntington’s Disease: Huntington’s disease is a genetic disorder that is inherited by the offspring from their parental generation. The disease is characterized by the death of brain cells. Early symptoms include subtle mood related problems or mental disability. Lack of co-ordination and disturbed gait is often observed in the affected individuals. As the condition progresses, unco-ordinated, jerky body movements become more common and apparent.
3. Multiple Sclerosis: Brain and spinal cord are affected in Multiple sclerosis. Symptoms include tingling sensation, weakness, numbness, blurred vision along with other simple signs like muscle stiffness, cognition problems, urinary problems etc. Treatment may relive individuals from the symptoms while delaying the progression of the condition.
4. Alzheimers’s Disease: Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disease that normally takes over slowly and progresses with time, the general symptom being short term memory loss. When the disease progresses, symptoms may vary which can be problems articulating sentences, mental disorientation, mood swings, getting demotivated easily, incapability manage oneself, changed behaviour etc. These individuals usually withdraw themselves from family and friends, as their condition deteriorates. Slowly their bodily functions fail thereby leading to death. The cause of this condition is not well understood yet, but the advancement of the disease may vary.
5. Brain Tumors: Brain tumors are often two types namely, malignant and benign. Malignant primary brain tumors are the cancerous ones that originate in brain, and grow usually faster than the benign tumors which are non-cancerous. Some of these tumors can be easily removed surgically while it might be hard to remove some of them based on their location in the brain. In cases where the tumors can-not be surgically removed, the individuals can undergo chemotherapy and radiotherapy to shrink and kill the tumorous cells.
6. Trigeminal neuralgia:Trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by a sharp stabbing facial pain that may be recurrent and chronic. The trigeminal nerve is affected in this condition which is of two types namely- typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. This condition often causes bouts of facial pain which may last for a few seconds to a few minutes. Episodes of the same may occur over hours of time. The exact reason behind this excruciating pain is not yet known but somehow it is believed to be because of the loss of the myelin sheath present around the trigeminal nerve. Treatment types include pharmacologic therapy, surgery, radiation therapy etc.
7. Guillain-Barre syndrome:This disorder is mainly manifested by the peripheral nervous system being attacked by the immune system. Early symptoms may include weakness or tingling sensation in the feet. Sometimes, these abnormal sensations may spread to the arms and upper body. An increase in the intensity of these pains is seen until some muscles cannot be used at all and in severe conditions an individual might get totally paralyzed. There is no know permanent treatment procedure to this particular condition but the symptoms can be controlled with medication. Procedures like plasma exchange/plasmapheresis and also high dosage immunotherapy are used currently to tackle the condition.
8. Tourette’s Syndrome: A neurological condition that is characterized by repeated, involuntary movements and vocalization called tics. Early symptoms are noticeable in the childhood with the onset at about 3 to 9 years of age. This condition is observed in all ethnic groups while men are affected more often than women. Abnormalities in certain parts of the brain lead to tics. Areas like basal ganglia, frontal lobes, cortex and also the circuits that interlink these areas in the brain and the neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine are affected thereby making this disorder more complex.
9. Frontotemporal Dementia: It refers to a group of disorders which are a resultant of progressive nerve cell loss in the frontal lobe of the brain or in the temporal lobes. Frontotemporal dementia/degeneration leads to the loss of function in certain brain regions thereby leading to behavioural degradation, language disturbance, changed personality, problems in muscle/motor functions. There is no specific treatment for frontotemporal subtypes, only medication that can reduce agitation/irritability and depression.
10. Spinocerebellar ataxia: A group of hereditary ataxias are collectively termed as spinocerebellar ataxia which are often characterized by degenerative changes in the brain regions that control movement(cerebellar region) and also sometimes in the spinal cord. These ataxia are classified based on the mutation in the gene responsible for that particular SCA. Symptoms among different SCA may differ but most are similar and includes unsteady gait, poor hand-eye co-ordination, problems in speech/dysarthria. There is no standard cure for the management of SCA but the best option is physical therapy that helps strengthen muscles, while devices like canes, crutches, walker or wheelchair can assist in mobility terms.