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Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology- Open Access Journals

Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology
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Editorial Board
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Editor-in Chief 
Nuclear Cardiology Laboratory,
La Mesa Cardiac Center,
California, USA
Tel: 619-573-0533
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Department of Radiology,
First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University,
Tel: +86-18098876978
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Director CareMore Regional Cardiology,
Clinical Professor of Medicine,
University of Arizona,
Tucson, Arizona USA
Tell: Office: (520) 721 5777
Fax: (520) 298 7231
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Department of Medical Sciences,
“Città della Salute e della Scienza” Hospital,
Turin, Italy
Tel: +00390116336768
Submit Manuscript

Submit manuscript at or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at [email protected]

Table of Contents
About the Journal

Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal aimed at publishing seminal research the field of Cardiology; it caters to a wide spectrum of readers such as: scholars, medical professionals, cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and diagnosticians.

The Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology focuses on cardiologic conditions such as: heart calcification, cardiac arrhythmia, heart attack, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, stress cardiomyopathy,inflammatory cardiomyopathy, inflammatory vascular disease, coronary arteritis, coronary artery ectasia, chronic arterial insufficiency, heart valve disease, and ventricular septal defect (VSD).

The Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology places special impetus on the treatment and diagnosis of cardiologic conditions such as: heart transplant, angioplasty, heart valve repair, biventricular pacing, coronary thrombectomy, coronary artery bypass surgery, angiography, cardiac echo, cardiac electrophysiology, percutaneous aortic valve replacement, anti-coagulant therapy, and stem-cell therapy. Studies dealing with cardiologic interventional devices such as: pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, heart monitors and ventricular assist devices are also welcome.

Governed by the editorial board comprising of distinguished scientists, Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology accommodates research articles, review articles high quality Case Reports, commentaries, and perspectives aimed at furthering our understanding of the domain. The Journal maintains the highest standards in terms of quality and originality of the content.The Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology provides authors an efficient and streamlined editorial platform, and facilitates rapid publication of submitted manuscripts.


Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology

Interventional Cardiology

Interventional Cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. This most commonly involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery and cannulating the heart under X-rayvisualization (most commonly fluoroscopy).

Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA), also known as balloon angioplasty and angioplasty, is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis. A deflated balloon attached to a catheter (a balloon catheter) is passed over a guide-wire into the narrowed vessel and then inflated to a fixed size. The balloon forces expansion of the blood vessel and the surrounding muscular wall, allowing an improved blood flow. A stent may be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure the vessel remains open, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn.

Heart Valve Repair

Heart Valve Repair is a surgical technique used to fix defects in heart valves in valvular heart diseases, and provides an alternative to valve replacement. Without further specification, it refers to native heart valve repair, rather than repair of an artificial heart valve.

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery. This surgery is usually performed with the heart stopped, necessitating the usage of cardiopulmonary bypass.

Allens Test

Allens Test is a medical sign used in physical examination of arterial blood flow to the hands. In the Allen test, one hand is examined at a time: 1. The hand is elevated and the patient is asked to clench their fist for about 30 seconds. 2. Pressure is applied over the ulnar and the radial arteries so as to occlude both of them. 3. Still elevated, the hand is then opened. It should appear blanched (pallor may be observed at the finger nails). 4. Ulnar pressure is released while radial pressure is maintained, and the colour should return within 5 to 15 seconds. If color returns as described, Allen's test is considered to be normal. If color fails to return, the test is considered abnormal and it suggests that the ulnar artery supply to the hand is not sufficient.

Cardiac Dysrhythmia

Cardiac Dysrhythmia also known as "Arrhythmia" or "irregular heartbeat", is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. A heart rate that is too fast – above 100 beats per minute in adults – is called tachycardia and a heart rate that is too slow – below 60 beats per minute – is called bradycardia.

Raynaud Syndrome

Raynaud Syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow. Typically, the fingers, and less commonly the toes, are involved. Rarely, the nose, ears, or lips are affected. The episodes result in the affected part turning white and then blue. Often, there is numbness or pain. As blood flow returns, the area turns red and burns. The episodes typically last minutes, but can last up to several hours. There are two main types: primary Raynaud's, when the cause is unknown, and secondary Raynaud's, which occurs as a result of another condition.


Arteriography or Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy.

Cardiac Echo

Cardiac Echo, often referred to as a echocardiogram or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart. Echocardiography uses standard two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and Doppler ultrasound to create images of the heart. It can provide a wealth of helpful information, including the size and shape of the heart, pumping capacity, the location and extent of any tissue damage, calculation of the cardiac output, ejection fraction, and diastolic function and can also help to detect cardiomyopathies.

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy, also known as stress cardiomyopathy, is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in which there is a sudden temporary weakening of the muscular portion of the heart. This weakening may be triggered by emotional stress, such as the death of a loved one, a break-up, or constant anxiety. This leads to one of the common names, broken heart syndrome.

Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Myocardial Infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it is in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.

Arrhythmia Services

Arrhythmia Services (also referred to as cardiac electrophysiology, clinical cardiac electrophysiology, or electrophysiology), is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive (intracardiac) catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulation (PES).

Percutaneous Aortic Valve Replacement (PAVR)

Percutaneous Aortic Valve Replacement (PAVR), also known as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), is the replacement of the aortic valve of the heart through the blood vessels (as opposed to valve replacement by open heart surgery). The replacement valve is delivered via one of several access methods: transfemoral transapical, subclavian, direct aortic, and transcaval.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease in which a portion of the myocardium (heart muscle) is hypertrophic(enlarged) without any obvious cause, creating functional impairment of the heart. With HCM, the myocytes (cardiac contractile cells) in the heart increase in size, which results in the thickening of the heart muscle. It is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes.

Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD)

Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) or automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) is a device implantableinside the body, able to perform cardioversion, defibrillation, and (in modern versions) pacing of the heart. The ICD is the first-line treatment and prophylactic therapy for patients at risk for sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.


Electrogram/Electrocardiogram is a cardiogram taken from the chambers of the heart or from a specific position within the chambers. His bundle electrogram an intracardiac electrogram of potentials in the lower right atrium, atrioventricular node, and His-Purkinje system, obtained by positioning intracardiac electrodes near the tricuspid valve; it is used to pinpoint the site, extent, and mechanisms of arrhythmias and conduction defects. intracardiac electrogram a record of changes in the electric potentials of specific cardiac loci as measured by electrodes placed within the heart via cardiac catheters; it is used for loci that cannot be assessed by body surface electrodes, such as the bundle of His or other regions within the cardiac conducting system.

Nuclear Cardiology

Nuclear cardiology studies use noninvasive techniques to assess myocardial blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart as well as visualize the size and location of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used.

Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

Myocardial perfusion scan or Imaging (MPS or MPI) is a nuclear medicine procedure that illustrates the function of the heart muscle (myocardium).

It evaluates many heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart wall motion abnormalities.The function of the myocardium is also evaluated by calculating the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of the heart. This scan is done in conjunction with a cardiac stress test.

Cardiac ventriculography

Cardiac ventriculography is a medical imaging test used to determine a patient's cardiac function in the right, or more typically, left ventricle. Cardiac ventriculography involves injecting contrast media into the heart's ventricle(s) to measure the volume of blood pumped. Cardiac ventriculography can be performed with a radionuclide in radionuclide ventriculography or with an iodine-based contrast in cardiac chamber catheterization.

The 3 major measurements obtained by cardiac ventriculography are:

-Ejection Fraction,

-Stroke Volume,

-Cardiac Output.

Hibernating myocardium

Hibernating Myocardium is a state when some segments of the myocardium exhibit abnormalities of contractile function. These abnormalities can be visualised with echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), nuclear medicine (PET) or ventriculography. The phenomenon is highly significant clinically because it usually manifests itself in the setting of chronic ischemia, that is potentially reversible by revascularisation via cardiac catheterization. The regions of myocardium are still viable and can return to normal function. There develops a new steady state between myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial function, MBF reduced and in consequence function is reduced too.

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