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Journal of Pollution is a multidisciplinary, peer reviewed, open accesses journal that serves international community with all aspects of environmental sciences. Environmentalist are welcomed to contribute their knowledge and experience together to offer complete coverage of key environmental concerns, challenges including scientific prediction, social and economic policy areas.
Journal of Pollution encourages original research and presents significant environmental pollution issues contributing to knowledge share and dissemination. The editors welcome high quality papers where the pollutants are clearly defined and measured and can be directly related to biological, ecological, and human health effects. This comprisesof air, water, soil pollution and climate change cause of them, new techniques and measurement of pollutants and pollutant effects with new types of environmental challenges like pollution antibiotic resistances of organisms.
Journal of Pollution publishes research articles, case reports, short communications, images, editorials, critical review papers and commentaries along with letters to the editor. Articles on innovative techniques and measurements to combat global problems are welcome.
These include but are not limited to General Pollution, Environment, Air Pollution, Soil Pollution, Water Pollution, Industrial Pollution, Pollutants, Pollution Control, Climate Change, Acid Rains, Ozone Depletion, Environmental Global Warming, Biodegradable Waste, Biomedical Waste, Waste Management, Sustainability and Technology in Pollution Measurement, Phytoremediation etc.Accordingly, high quality research works falling within mentioned scopes are welcomed.
It may be defined as addition of undesirable matter or contaminants into the environment as a result of human activity that causes harmful and toxic effects to living organisms. Agents which causes pollution are called as pollutants. A pollutant is a physical, chemical or biological substance intentionally or unintentionally released into environment which directly or indirectly harmful to living organisms.
Environs refers to surrounding of the living organisms. It also referred to as habitat. It consists of both living and non-living things. Living things such as animals, plants, etc. interacts with both other living and non-living things. Similarly, non-living things such as soil, water, climate, temperature, air, etc. interacts with other non-living and living things. Ecology is the branch of science that studies the interaction between organisms and their environment.
World Environment Day is a campaign being celebrated for years on June 5th every year to create awareness among the public towards the environment.
Air pollution can be defined as introduction of harmful substances in air that results in calamitous impact to the environment and humanity. It is the result of both human and natural activities. An ever increasing of fossil fuels, emissions from industries and vehicles, natural events like volcanic eruptions , wildfire can lead to air pollution.
Soil Pollution is the presence of toxic contaminants in soil, in such a concentration that causes risk to living organisms or the ecosystem. Soil pollution occurs when the amount contaminants level exceed to that of natural levels.
Soil pollution is generated by Anthropogenic causes like increased mining activity, improper disposal of industrial and domestic wastes etc. ; Natural causes like water percolation, presence of high levels of heavy metals.
Addition or presence of undesirable substances in water bodies is termed to as water pollution. It occurs when foreign substances like chemicals, sewage water from households, effluents from industries etc. directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies. Any alteration in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water can be called as water pollution.
Water pollution can be categorised into point source, non-point source and ground water pollution.
Point source pollution means when undesirable substances enter into water bodies from a single recognizable source whereas in non-point source it occurs as a result of cumulative effects of different contaminants.
Human activities such as improper sewage disposal, dumping of yard manures and agricultural chemicals, industrial effluents into earth causes ground water pollution.
Industrial pollution is the release of effluents and chemicals generated by industrial activities into the surrounding environment. The pollutants and causes for industrial pollution encompasses smoke and dust emissions, disposal of material wastes and water into water bodies, landfill disposal, injection of toxic chemical substances into underground, emission of greenhouse gases etc. Industrial pollution can adversely damage flora and fauna, causes eco-system imbalances and degrades the quality of life and health of humans.
Plastic pollution involves the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans.Plastic pollution will unfavorably affect lands, waterways and oceans, living organisms, particularly marine animals, direct ingestion of plastic waste, or through exposure to chemicals within plastics that cause pollution in biological activities
A pollutant is a physical, chemical or biological substance intentionally or unintentionally released into environment which directly or indirectly harmful to living organisms.
Stock pollutants: Pollutants towards which environment has little or no absorptive capacity. (e.g. persistent synthetic chemicals)
Fund pollutants: Pollutants which have absorptive capacity, doesn’t cause much damage unless its limit exceeds to the absorptive capacity of environment. (e.g. CO2)
Pollution control refers to control of emissions into air, effluents into water and soil. Without pollution control the wastes generated by human activities will accumulate or will degrade the environment.
Pollution control does not mean giving up of existing human activities but their reordering so as to guarantee that their negative effects do not outweigh their advantages.
Pollution control practices includes recycling and reusing, waste minimisation, mitigation etc.
Climate change is a change in statistical distribution of weather patterns that lasts for an extended period of time. It encompasses global warming but refers to broader range of changes that are happening to our planet.
Climate change is mainly due to the excessive use of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of effects on ecosystem.
Evidence of rapid climate change includes sea level rise, global temperature rise, warming oceans, shrinking ice sheets, declining arctic sea ice, ocean acidification, shifts in plant blooming time, changes in precipitation etc.
Acid rains are form of precipitation with high levels of nitric and sulphuric acids, they can also occur in the form of snow, mist or fog that settles down to earth. Acid rains are due to human activities like excessive burning of fossil fuels and natural calamities like volcanic eruptions, rotting vegetation etc.
Acid rain has many ecological effects and greater impact on lakes, streams, wetlands, and other aquatic environments. Acid rains also causes nitrogen pollution
Ozone layer is a belt of naturally occurring gas Ozone. It is 15 to 30 kilometers above the earth and acts as a shield from entering harmful ultraviolet B radiations from the sun to earth.
Ozone layer is deteriorating due to release of pollution containing chemicals like chlorine and bromine. Chlorofluorocarbons and chemicals found in spray aerosols are primary culprits for ozone layer depletion.
Depletion of ozone layer allows large amounts of UVB rays to reach earth which can cause skin cancers and cataract in humans, harms flora fauna as well.
Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in earth’s average surface and its oceans temperature over the past century primarily due to emission of green-house gases. In the past century, temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly doubled in the last 50 years.
Human activity like burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, industrialisation and increase in pollution are few factors that are responsible for global warming. Climate change, melting of glaciers, rise of sea levels, heat waves, and severe precipitation are few effects of global warming.
Biodegradable wastes are type of wastes typically originated from plant, animal, human wastes which can be degraded by biotic elements like microbes and abiotic elements like temperature, UV-rays, oxygen. Biotic and abiotic elements together breakdown complex substances into simple organic fragments which eventually fade into soil. The whole process is natural; therefore environmental risks caused by biodegradable wastes are considerably low.
Biomedical waste is any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biologicals. Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of major concern to protect humans and environment as well.
Management of biomedical wastes includes waste collection, segregation, storage, transportation, treatment and its disposal.
Incineration, Autoclaving. Shedding are few methods for treating biomedical wastes.
Waste management is the process of treating wastes and offering a variety of solutions for its recycling. Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its starting point to its final disposal. It includes collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste. It also covers the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.
Various methods of waste management includes Landfills, Incineration/combustion, Recovery and Recycling, Plasma Gasification, Composting, Waste to Energy (WtE), Biomedical processing etc.
Sustainable means meeting the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their needs. Sustainability has been associated with conservation of resources and protecting the environment. Sustainable practices increases long term efficiency and provide long term security.
Pollution prevention is the gateway to sustainability. Understanding how pollution is generated and how it can be minimised is the first step to eliminate pollution
Pollution can be measured in several ways.
By the use of spectroscopic methods: UV-Fluorescence- measuring SO2 concentration,
Chemiluminescence- to measure photochemical NOx concentration,
Gas chromatography- to measure green-house gases.
By using Bioassays and Biosensors.
Other technologies: AirBot- for monitoring airborne pollutants; WaterBot- for testing water quality; sensaris- gives instant air quality measurement; electronic Nose- to detect small amounts of hazardous airborne chemicals.
Phytoremediation is the direct use of living green plants for in situ, or in place, removal, degradation, or containment of contaminants in soils, sludges, sediments, surface water and groundwater. Phytoremediation is: A low cost, solar energy driven cleanup technique. Most useful at sites with shallow, low levels of contamination. Useful for treating a wide variety of environmental contaminants. Effective with, or in some cases, in place of mechanical cleanup methods.
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