alexa Lectins: Magic Bullet towards HIV Gp120 | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 1948-5964
Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Lectins: Magic Bullet towards HIV Gp120

Sindhura BR1, Vishwanath Reddy H1, Shashikala R Inamdar1 and Bale M Swamy2*

1Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India

2Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India

*Corresponding Author:
Bale M Swamy
Professor, Department of Biochemistry
Karnatak University, Dharwad
580003, India
Tel: 091 836 2215243
Fax: 091 836 2747884
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: October 27, 2012; Accepted Date: November 27, 2012; Published Date: December 03, 2012

Citation: Sindhura BR, Vishwanath Reddy H, Inamdar SR, Swamy BM (2012) Lectins: Magic Bullet towards HIV gp120. J Antivir Antiretrovir 4:101-102. doi: 10.4172/jaa.1000053

Copyright: © 2012 Sindhura BR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Abstract

The AIDS epidemic, in spite of considerable efforts is continuous to spread at formidable rate worldwide with an estimated 34 million people being infected with HIV at the end of 2010. Drug discovery towards AIDS is a desperation area of research because of the down beating results of number of painstaking attempts. The key step in the disease progression is viral binding to the host T lymphocytes and entry. The gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins, derived from gp160 forms a complex that mediates the receptor and co receptor binding, subsequent membrane fusion events will permits viral entry.

The AIDS epidemic, in spite of considerable efforts is continues to spread at formidable rate worldwide with an estimated 34 million people being infected with HIV at the end of 2010. Drug discovery towards AIDS is a desperating area of research because of the down beating results of number of painstaking attempts.

The key step in the disease progression is viral binding to the host T lymphocytes and the entry. The gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins, derived from gp160 forms a complex that mediates the receptor and co receptor binding, subsequent membrane fusion events will permit viral entry. These envelope glycoproteins are about 50% glycosylated with N- linked mannose rich glycans [1]. Wei et al. [2] suggests glycan shield concept that the flexible N-linked high mannose glycan buckler prevents the neutralizing antibodies from binding to their cognate epitopes by the steric hindrance rather than the epitope variability.

Lectins are multivalent carbohydrate binding proteins which recognize diverse sugar structures with a high degree of stereospecificity in a non catalytic manner. Number of lectins possess emblemtic attribute of specifically recognize and binds to the carbohydrates/ glycans found on the HIV buckler- envelope glycoprotein. Many lectins found in the human system play key roles in innate immune system against HIV infection. Langerin, a calcium dependent lectin found on mucosal Langerhan’s cells bind to HIV-1 and subsequently internalizes it into Birbeck granules which will further get degraded [3]. Mannose binding lectin in human system neutralizes HIV-1 and also blocks the interaction between virus and DC-SIGN, a receptor essential for viral progression [4].

Likely there are wide array of lectins found in natural systems of plants- BanLec from Banana; Algae- Griffithsin from Griffithsia Sp.; Fungi- Pleurotus citrinopileatus lectin from Pleurotus citrinopileatus; Actinohivin from Actinomycetes; Cyanobacteria- Cyanovirin V from Nostoc.

It is worth focusing on recent developments in antiretrovirals, as most of the current drug regimns suffer from the events of developing resistance against existing combination of therapies. HIV evades the antibody mediated neutralization in many cunning ways with the help of evolving glycan coat. Initially glycans were thought to be ornaments of envelope in HIV coat. Later they are knew to have vital role in disease initiation and progression. The glycan coat is important for the hindrance and survival from immune system. Glycans on HIV envelope glycoproteins provided by the host machinery, hence chances of acquiring the resistance from altering the glycan structure is very less. Lectins can bind to the glycan found on different spots of the HIV- 1 envelope, and presumably it will take multiple mutations for the virus to get around them.

Many studies showed that alteration/removal of carbohydrates in the viral glycan coat make it more susceptible for host immune system [5]. Thus targeting the glycan coat is an effective approach in halting the spread of HIV infection.

Compared with the drugs which are already in the clinical trials ex; Maraviroc, Lectins found to be potent entry blocker of HIV-1 and subsequently inhibit progression and transmission of disease [6]. Apart from the entry/fusion inhibition by binding to gp120, they also serve as Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors [7], Immune potentiators- studied with inducing the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in splenocytes8. Lectins also inhibit other microbes- Klebsiella pneumonia, HCV, which are common opportunistic infections during AIDS. Thus lectins as a single or in a group may demonstrate synergism thus offering the rationale for their combination in therapies for HIV infection [8].

Many efforts put forth towards the synthesis of highly potent lectins which are more active with poor toxic profile. University of Utah researchers headed by Patrick. F. Kiser have constructed benzoboroxole-based synthetic lectin, inhibits HIV entry into host cells (EC50=1.1 nM) [9]. US based Legere Pharmaceuticals Ltd. developing many lectin based commercial biopharmaceuticals- Phytocam VM (vaginal microbicide), Phytocam condom (utilize single or multiple lectins targeted at HIV) and claimed patents on method of using lectin for prophylaxis against diseases transmittable by sexual contact.

There are many approaches for potentially more promising delivery of lectins, is there in situ expression by modified bacteria similar to those naturally found in vagina. This was already proven by studies of the delivery of Cyanovirin V in biologically active form using human commensal organism Streptococcus gordonii [10,11]. Altogether these promising profiles provide new insight for antiretroviral research and suggest that lectins will be effective tools, which could serve as microbicides in order to interrupt HIV transmission in humans.

Acknowledgement

Authors thank UGC- New Delhi for the financial support under UGC- CPEPA program.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11642
  • [From(publication date):
    November-2012 - Sep 20, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7887
  • PDF downloads :3755
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords