Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common tumour in women. More than 200,000 new cases are diagnosed each year worldwide. Each year, it constitutes 4% of all cancers diagnosed in women, and there are 6.6 new cases per 100,000 women per year . Its history has been known scientifically for over 150 years; during this time, its mortality rate has not changed but its incidence has—the former despite treatments, which are highly expensive and sophisticated. In the last two decades there have been only small improvements in the overall survival rate of five years. While the five-year survival rate has steadily increased from 30–50% with the use of cisplatin, in total, there is only a 5% increase, from 20% to only 25%, in women with advanced tumours