Definition: Autism is a general term for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviours. In recent times all autism disorders were merged into one umbrella diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Symptoms and Treatment: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social-interaction difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviors. However, symptoms and their severity vary widely across these three core areas. Taken together, they may result in relatively mild challenges for someone on the high functioning end of the autism spectrum. Each child or adult with autism is unique so, each autism intervention plan should be tailored to address specific needs. Intervention can involve behavioral treatments, medicines or both. Many persons with autism have additional medical conditions such as sleep disturbance, seizures and gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Addressing these conditions can improve attention, learning and related behaviors.
Statistics: Disease statistics in Mexico were resulted as genetic abnormalities can currently be detected in a small, but significant fraction of individuals with ASD. The percentage of gene-related cases will likely increase as gene sequencing technology advances and the number of genes associated with autism moves into the hundreds. Specific genetic defects are often noted in ASD, such as copy number variations in 16p.11.2 and 15q13.2q13.3. In addition, several well-known genetic disorders may present with symptoms of autism. Two such examples are tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and Fragile X. Recent work has shown that the signaling pathways that are mechanistic in these disorders may both relate to metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (MGLUR), but in opposite directions. That is, MGLUR signaling may be reduced in TSC and increased in Fragile X, and researchers have proposed that augmentation should alleviate symptoms in TSC, while inhibition may be beneficial in Fragile X.