Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s. People may present with bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia leading to bitemporal hemianopia, as the tumor may compress the optic chiasm. Craniopharyngiomas are typically very slow growing tumors. They arise from the cells along the pituitary stalk, specifically from nests of odontogenic (tooth-forming) epithelium within the suprasellar/diencephalic region and, therefore, contain deposits of calcium, which are evident on an x-ray. Balance disorder, Dry skin, Fatigue, Fever, Headache, Hypersomnia, Lethargy, Myxedema, Nausea etc. include is symptoms.
The overall incidence is 0.5-2.0 new cases/million population/year. Approximately 30-50% of all cases present in childhood. They account for about 3% of primary intracranial tumours overall, 5% of childhood intracranial tumours and 4.2% of all childhood tumours. There is bimodal age distribution with peaks occurring at 5-14 years and 65-74 years of age. There is possibly a slight preponderance in males. The overall 10-year survival rate is between 60% and 90%. The outlook for younger patients is generally very good (reported to be between 69% and 99% survival at five years for those less than 20 years old). Older patients do less well (38% survival at five years for those over 65 years old, although there may be confounding factors such as unrelated comorbidity). Hypothalamic obesity is associated with increased mortality
Treatment generally consists of subfrontal or transsphenoidal excision. Surgery using the transsphenoidal route is often performed by a joint team of ENT and neurosurgeons. Because of the location of the craniopharyngioma near the brain and skullbase, a surgical navigation system might be used to verify the position of surgical tools during the operation. Additional radiotherapy is also used if total removal is not possible.
The ongoing researches in Mexico on craniopharyngioma include: Intracerebral injection of oil cyst content of human craniopharyngioma (oil machinery fluid) as a toxic model in the rat brain, Infradiaphragmatic craniopharyngioma in the adult, Treatment of craniopharyngioma in adults.