Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull. Because the skull cannot expand perpendicular to the fused suture, it compensates by growing more in the direction parallel to the closed sutures. The fusion of this suture causes a certain change in the shape of the skull; a deformity of the skull. Sometimes the resulting growth pattern provides the necessary space for the growing brain, but results in an abnormal head shape and abnormal facial features.
There are four types of craniosynostosis:
It has recently been reported that nonsyndromic, primary craniosynostoses from one or more sutures appear in 1/2100 children. It has been estimated that this represents 10-16 cases/10,000 newborns. Synostotic scaphocephaly is the most frequent craniosynostosis reported for most series (40%-60%). Next is coronal suture craniosynostosis (13.1%-30%),which may be either unilateral, (plagiocephaly) or bilateral (brachycephaly). Metopic stenosis (trigonocephaly) presents in 6.6%-20% of cases. Cases where more than one suture is affected represent 4%-8%.
Treating craniosynostosis usually involves surgery to separate the fused bones. If there's no underlying brain abnormality, the surgery allows baby’s brain adequate space to grow and develop. The primary goal in surgical intervention is to allow normal cranial vault development to occur. The few basic elements involved in the surgical intervention aimed at normalization of the cranial vault include: minimization of blood loss and the avoidance of the use of titanium plates in the fixation of the skull.
The ongoing researches in Mexico on Craniosynostosis include: Test of the relationship between sutural ossicles and cultural cranial deformation: results from Hawikuh, New Mexico, New severity indices for quantifying single-suture metopic craniosynostosis, The morphogenesis of wormian bones: a study of craniosynostosis and purposeful cranial deformation.