Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular complication and high specificity of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes alike. In general, the progress of retinopathy is constant, and starts pathology, easy, no-thriving, characterized by permeability increased vascular developing diabetic retinopathy non-prosperous moderate and severe - (Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy NPDR), characterized by the closure of the blood vessels to diabetic retinopathy thriving - (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy PDR), which is characterized by vegetation of new blood vessels in the retina and posterior surface of the glass. Pregnancy, ICL adolescence and cataract surgery, may accelerate these changes Vision loss secondary to diabetic retinopathy is the result of several mechanisms. Central vision disturbances may occur due to macular edema, or due to lack of perfusion of the capillaries. New blood vessels of PDR and contraction associated fibrotic karma, may distort the retina and cause Lhifrdoth, thereby causing vision loss is difficult, sometimes irreversible. The new blood vessels may bleed, thereby adding a complication of blood in the glass
A persistent increase in blood glucose levels shunts excess glucose into the aldose reductase pathway in certain tissues, which converts sugars into alcohol (eg, glucose into sorbitol, galactose to dulcitol). Intramural pericytes of retinal capillaries seem to be affected by this increased level of sorbitol, eventually leading to the loss of their primary function (ie, autoregulation of retinal capillaries). This results in weakness and eventual saccular outpouching of capillary walls. These microaneurysms are the earliest detectable signs of DM retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetes and DR in Chiapas was high. Including the DR component was possible, but added considerably to the cost and complexity of the survey, and so would be warranted only if a high prevalence of diabetes is expected and if resources and time permit. However moderate-to-severe DR is significantly higher in Mexico City.
Treatment There are treatments that can prevent or delay the emergence of diabetic retinopathy, and also prevent the loss of vision among a large number of people with diabetes. Intensive diabetes therapy, to achieve the best possible control of blood sugar may prevent and delay progression of diabetic retinopathy. Early treatment of photocoagulation using a laser, can also prevent vision loss among the large number of patients with NPDR hard, PDR and / or macular edema. Since patients with vision-threatening pathology may be free of symptoms, the routine evaluation for retinopathy strategy is necessary and valuable. Laser treatment (photocoagulation) is used to stop the leakage of blood and fluid into the retina. A laser beam of light can be used to create small burns in areas of the retina with abnormal blood vessels to try to seal the leaks Treatment for diabetic retinopathy depends on the stage of the disease and is directed at trying to slow or stop the progression of the disease. In the early stages of Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, treatment other than regular monitoring may not be required. Following your doctor's advice for diet and exercise and keeping blood sugar levels well-controlled can help control the progression of the disease. If the disease advances, leakage of fluid from blood vessels can lead to macular edema.
Laser treatment (photocoagulation) is used to stop the leakage of blood and fluid into the retina. A laser beam of light can be used to create small burns in areas of the retina with abnormal blood vessels to try to seal the leaks. When blood vessel growth is more widespread throughout the retina, as in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, a pattern of scattered laser burns is created across the retina. This causes abnormal blood vessels to shrink and disappear. With this procedure, some side vision may be lost in order to safeguard central vision. Some bleeding into the vitreous gel may clear up on its own. However, if significant amounts of blood leak into the vitreous fluid in the eye, it will cloud vision and can prevent laser photocoagulation from being used. A surgical procedure called a vitrectomy may be used to remove the blood-filled vitreous and replace it with a clearfluid to maintain the normal shape and health of the eye. Persons with diabetic retinopathy can suffer significant vision loss. Special low vision devices such as telescopic and microscopic lenses, hand and stand magnifiers, and video magnification systems can be prescribed to make the most of remaining vision.
Hyperglycemia alters maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese, chromium and vanadium in diabetic model human placental lobule in vitro : Implications for diabetes mellitu PPT Version |