alexa Eastern equine encephalitis | Mexico | PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Eastern Equine Encephalitis

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  • Eastern equine encephalitis

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but serious viral disease spread by mosquitoes that can affect people and horses. EEE can also cause disease in captive birds such as the ring-necked pheasant, emu, ostriches, quail and ducks. EEE infection and disease can occasionally occur in other livestock, deer, dogs, other mammals, reptiles and amphibians. There is no human vaccine for EEE. The best way to protect yourself is to keep mosquitoes from biting you.

    EEE is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes will then occasionally feed on horses, humans and other mammals. Several species of mosquitoes can become infected with the EEE virus (EEEV). EEE is not spread person-to-person, from people to animals or from animals (other than mosquitoes) to people.

  • Eastern equine encephalitis

    It takes 4-10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop symptoms of EEE. Most people bitten by an infected mosquito will not develop any symptoms. Severe cases of EEE infection begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into disorientation, seizures, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and coma. Approximately a third of patients who develop EEE die, and many of those who survive have mild to severe brain damage.

    Enzootic VEE viruses have varying distributions in parts of Mexico, South and Central America. They are absent from Canada and most of the U.S. however, Everglades virus (subtype II) occurs in Florida, and Tonate virus (variant III-B) was detected in Colorado and South Dakota in the 1970s. Enzootic VEEV I-E viruses pathogenic for equids have been detected only in Mexico; I-E viruses currently found in other parts of Latin America do not seem affect these animals. Most encephalomyelitis infections in domestic fowl are caused by EEE virus and occur on the east coast states of the USA. The virus is introduced by mosquitoes, but transmission within the flocks is primarily by feather picking and cannibalism. Both EEE and WEE viruses have caused a fatal disease in ratites. Haemorrhagic enteritis has been observed in emus infected with EEE and WEE viruses, and morbidity and mortality rates may be greater than 85%. Highlands J and EEE viruses have been found to produce depression, somnolence, decreased egg production,and increased mortality in turkeys.

  • Eastern equine encephalitis

    Focus management primarily on supportive and preventive measures. Pharmacologic therapy consists primarily of antipyretics, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Treatment consists of corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, and supportive measures (treating symptoms)such as intravenous fluids, tracheal intubation, and antipyretics.

  • Eastern equine encephalitis

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but serious viral disease spread by mosquitoes that can affect people and horses. EEE can also cause disease in captive birds such as the ring-necked pheasant, emu, ostriches, quail and ducks. EEE infection and disease can occasionally occur in other livestock, deer, dogs, other mammals, reptiles and amphibians. There is no human vaccine for EEE. The best way to protect yourself is to keep mosquitoes from biting you.

    EEE is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes will then occasionally feed on horses, humans and other mammals. Several species of mosquitoes can become infected with the EEE virus (EEEV). EEE is not spread person-to-person, from people to animals or from animals (other than mosquitoes) to people.

    It takes 4-10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop symptoms of EEE. Most people bitten by an infected mosquito will not develop any symptoms. Severe cases of EEE infection begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into disorientation, seizures, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and coma. Approximately a third of patients who develop EEE die, and many of those who survive have mild to severe brain damage.

    Enzootic VEE viruses have varying distributions in parts of Mexico, South and Central America. They are absent from Canada and most of the U.S. however, Everglades virus (subtype II) occurs in Florida, and Tonate virus (variant III-B) was detected in Colorado and South Dakota in the 1970s. Enzootic VEEV I-E viruses pathogenic for equids have been detected only in Mexico; I-E viruses currently found in other parts of Latin America do not seem affect these animals. Most encephalomyelitis infections in domestic fowl are caused by EEE virus and occur on the east coast states of the USA. The virus is introduced by mosquitoes, but transmission within the flocks is primarily by feather picking and cannibalism. Both EEE and WEE viruses have caused a fatal disease in ratites. Haemorrhagic enteritis has been observed in emus infected with EEE and WEE viruses, and morbidity and mortality rates may be greater than 85%. Highlands J and EEE viruses have been found to produce depression, somnolence, decreased egg production,and increased mortality in turkeys.

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