Gynecomastia is a disorder of endocrine system causes swelling of breast tissue in boys or men, caused by an imbalance of hormones estrogen and testosterone. Gynecomastia development is usually associated with benign pubertal changes and is a source of psychological distress. In rare it occurs in association with certain disease states in which 75% of pubertal gynecomastia cases resolve within two years of onset without treatment.
Disturbances in the endocrine system that lead to an increase in the ratio of estrogens/androgens are thought to be responsible for the development of gynecomastia. Men and boys with gynecomastia sometimes have pain in their breasts and may feel embarrassed. The degree of effect is measured in grades according to the presence of excess skin.
Mild cases can be treated with advice on lifestyle habits such as proper diet and exercise where as severe cases require treatment with Selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen or raloxifene. The number of reported cases of gynecomastia in 2014 was 0.038 to 0.04% of men population.