Intracranial venous malformations are abnormally enlarged veins in brain. Venous malformations are a type of blood vessel abnormality in the brain or spinal cord.
The estimated incidence of AVM in the US general population is 0.14% (140 cases per 100,000 persons or 1 case per 700 persons). This is approximately one fifth to one seventh the incidence of intracranial aneurysms.One or more persisting direct connections from the arterial to the venous systems are present. AVMs are considered congenital lesions and are characterized by a failure of the embryonic vascular plexus to fully differentiate and develop a mature capillary bed in the affected area. The formation of AVMs probably relates to sequential formation and resorption of cerebral surface veins. Their structures may change and grow postnatally but only in relation to a prenatally extant lesion.
The most important goal AVM treatment is to prevent internal bleeding from rupture, because which can lead to stroke / death. However, seizure control or stabilization of progressive neurological deficits are occasionally treatment goals. Though medication may be prescribed, it does not cure AVMs but medications are used to control pain and seizures. The management options for brain AVMs include observation or various treatment techniques, such as endovascular embolization, microsurgical techniques and stereotactic radiotherapy used alone or in combination with varying degrees of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.