Nephrotic syndrome is a condition where the 'filters' in the kidney become 'leaky' and large amounts of protein leak from your blood into your urine. The main symptom is fluid retention which is mainly due to the low protein level in the blood. Various diseases can cause nephrotic syndrome, some more serious than others.
Treatment and outcome vary, depending on the cause. The common cause in children usually responds very well to treatment. Studies regarding the increased incidence of FSGS in children should be interpreted with caution, as clinical practice is changing with respect to which patients with nephrotic syndrome should undergo renal biopsy. In years past, it has been the custom to biopsy steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic patients before starting an alkylating agent. However, recent studies have shown that steroid responsiveness confers a good prognosis regardless of morphologic findings, and many nephrologists now confine renal biopsy to patients with glucocorticoid nonresponsiveness.