Nightmares can be defined as vivid and terrifying dreams which awaken the dreamer from sleep. Typically, the dreamer wakes from the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep and can remember a detailed, perhaps bizarre dream plot. There is evidence that frequent nightmares are associated with insomnia and poor-quality sleep.Nightmares in adults are often spontaneous. But they can also be caused by a variety of factors and underlying disorders.Some people have nightmares after having a late-night snack, which can increase metabolism and signal the brain to be more active. A number of medications also are known to contribute to nightmare frequency.
Imagery rehearsal treatment is a promising cognitive behavioral therapy for recurrent nightmares and nightmares caused by PTSD. The technique helps chronic sufferers change their nightmares by rehearsing how they would like them to transpire. In some cases, medications may be used in conjunction with therapy to treat PTSD-related nightmares, though their efficacy has not been demonstrated as clearly as that of imagery rehearsal treatment.US studies of Nightmare disorder statistics revealed that up to 40% of children and teens who have endured at least one traumatic event, resulted in the development of PTSD in up to 15% of girls and 6% of boys. They also say that about 10% of women develop PTSD compared with 5% of men.A great majority of the research focuses on management of individual patients and case reports. Thus, there is paucity of research with randomized controlled trials and Level 1 studies.