Streptococcus pneumonia infection also known as pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. These bacteria can affect to the different parts of the body causing different signs and symptoms depending on the site of infection. Pneumonia i.e., infection of the lungs, ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis i.e., infection of the covering around the brain, spinal cord and bacteremia covering blood stream infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae is communicable and spread from the infected person through coughing, sneezing, and close contact. The symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, confusion and disorientation, sensitivity to light, joint pain, chills, ear pain, sleeplessness, and irritability. In extreme cases Streptococcus pneumoniae infection can cause brain damage, hearing loss and death. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection mainly tends to occur in the elderly or in people with serious underlying medical conditions. Groups such as children under 2 years of age, children in childcare and Torres Strait Islander people. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is usually diagnosed by microscopic examination and growth of bacteria from blood, sputum or other specimens. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing in a pathology laboratory is also used. Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae promise to be an effective public health intervention for children, especially in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance.
To characterize the distribution of capsular types in Latin America, surveillance for invasive pneumococcal infection in children £5 years of age was done in six countries between February 1993 and April 1996. Fifty percent of 1,649 sterile-site isolates were from children with pneumonia, and 52% were isolated from blood. The 15 most common of the capsular types prevalent throughout the region accounted for 87.7% of all isolates. Overall, 24.9% of isolates had diminished susceptibility to penicillin: 16.7% had intermediate resistance and 8.3% had high-level resistance. Three customized vaccine formulas containing 7, 12, and 15 capsular types were found to have regional coverages of 72%, 85%, and 88%, respectively. This study emphasizes the need for local surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease prior to the development and evaluation of protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines for children. Symptoms widely vary in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, mild illness to febrile pneumonia to respiratory distress requiring ICU-level care. Factors such as age, type of symptoms, and duration of symptoms, underlying or chronic illness, and compliance with treatment, appropriate home care and potential for worsening disease are considered in determining the need and level of hospitalization. Most hospitalized should be treated with parenteral antibiotics in addition to medications for pulmonary symptoms, pain medications, intravenous fluids or parenteral or enteral nutrition, oxygen, and additional medications, as indicated on an individual basis.
The use of steroids in adult patients with bacterial meningitis is recommended with caution, as they may decrease CSF antibiotic concentration; patients with meningitis treated with steroids should be monitored closely. Steroids can be considered prior to antibiotic therapy in children aged 6 weeks and older with pneumococcal meningitis. They should be given before or at the time of first dose of antibiotics. Intravenous fluids, parenteral or enteral nutrition, and other medications should be used as indicated clinical instances. A patient with pneumococcal bacteremia is treated with appropriate antibiotics. Children who undergo workup to rule out serious bacterial illness but who are not treated initially with antibiotics and whose cultures subsequently grow S pneumoniae are often asymptomatic and have negative repeat blood culture findings at follow-up. Repeat blood cultures should always be obtained in patients with S pneumoniae bacteremia. Patients with cardiac, skin or soft-tissue, bone, and joint infections with S pneumoniae should usually be admitted to the hospital for observation, intravenous antibiotic therapy, expedition of further workup and evaluation of location. Major Research on Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is been done in Mexico by World Health organization, American society for Microbiology.