Models are mathematical, logical, or some other structured representation of reality, simulations are the specific application of models to arrive at some outcome.Models are created from a mass of data, equations and computations that mimic the actions of things represented. Models usually include a graphical display that translates all this number crunching into an animation that you can see on a computer screen or by means of some other visual device. Models can be simple images of thingsthe outer shell, so to speakor they can be complex, carrying all the characteristics of the object or process they represent. A complex model will simulate the actions and reactions of the real thing. To make these models behave the way they would in real life, accurate, real-time simulations require fast computers with lots of number crunching power.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014