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Zemskov Vladimir Mikhailovich
Russian Academy of Medical and Technical Sciences,
Afolabi Kamaldeen Kolawole
Cavendish University Uganda
Member of Uganda National association of occupational health
Member of American society of Microbiology and Member of Various Public health groups
Postdoctoral research scholar,
niversity of IOWA, Iowa City, IA,
Venkata Raghavendra Rao Morusupalli
M.A, MSc, FRSB (UK), FZSL (UK), FABAP, FAGE, AIC , and F RSTMH,(UK)
Professor of Medical Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology,
Dean Students Affairs & Research Director Avalon University School of Medicine
Submit manuscript at https://www.editorialmanager.com/scholarlyjournals or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at [email protected]
Journal of Morphology and Anatomy is a peer reviewed, open access journal that aims to understand human anatomy by analyzing its structure, function, development and evolution. Priority will be given to the studies that clearly articulate their relevance to the anatomical community. Focal areas of the journal include: experimental studies, contributions based on molecular and cell biology and application of modern imaging techniques. Manuscripts with novel methods or synthetic perspective on the anatomical system, studies that describes anatomy are welcome, if they communicate clearly on the broader functional or evolutionary significance. Articles covering bioinformatics and the functional anatomical understanding will also be considered.
The Journal also publishes original research articles on macroscopic anatomy, histological development, Morphological Sciences, Cell and Molecular Biology, Macroscopic Human Anatomy, and Microscopic Human Anatomy. Topics related to Macroscopic Animal Anatomy, Microscopic Animal Anatomy, History of Morphological Sciences, Morphology and Arts, Education in Morphology, Techniques for the Study of Morphology, Clinical Anatomy, Compared Anatomy, Pathological Anatomy, Anatomy and Anthropology, Embryology and Cell Biology. Morphology Applied to other Sciences like phonology, syntax, and semantics, the acquisition and processing of morphological information, mental lexicon, and morphological variation and change, models of morphology, morphological typology, the position of morphology in the architecture of the human language, and the evolution of language.
The Journal accepts original manuscripts in the form of research article, review article, short communication, case report, letter-to-the-Editor and Editorials for publication. All the published articles are open access and can be accessed online without any subscription charges. The journal extensively enhances the worldwide visibility of the scholars that contribute their research work.
The Editorial Manager System helps in maintaining the quality of the peer review process and enables the authors to track the review and publication process in an automated way. Experts in the field of Morphology and Anatomy take up the review process under the guidance of Editor-in-Chief. . Approval of at least two independent reviewers and the editor is mandatory for the acceptance of the manuscript for publication.
Anatomy is the identification and description of the structures of living things. Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine which can be divided into three broad areas: human anatomy, zootomy (animal anatomy), and phytotomy (plant anatomy). Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, Comparative anatomy, Evolutionary biology, phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales.
Embryology is the branch of biology that is concerned with the development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses. It is the science dealing with the formation, development, structure, and functional activities of embryos. Embryology is the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth. Comparative embryology is the branch of embryology that compares and contrasts embryos of different species. It is used to show how all animals are related. Many things are compared (such as whether or not the organism has a notochord or gill arches). Many components go into comparative embryology, and much information about the developmental similarities between species can be taken from its study, from which many conclusions can be drawn.
General Anatomy or Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. Two major concepts of comparative anatomy are:
• Homologous structures – These are the structures that are similar in different species because the species have common descent. They may or may not serve the same function. An example is the forelimb structure shared by cats and whales.
• Analogous structures – These are the structures similar in different organisms because they evolved in a similar environment, rather than were inherited from a recent common ancestor. They usually perform the same or similar purposes. An example is the streamlined torpedo body shape of porpoises and sharks. So even though they evolved from different ancestors, porpoises and sharks developed analogous structures as a result of their evolution in the same aquatic environment.
Evolutionary developmental biology, now often known as “evo-devo,” is the study of the relation between evolution and development to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how developmental processes evolved. It addresses the origin and evolution of embryonic development; how modifications of development and developmental processes lead to the production of novel features, such as the evolution of feathers, the role of developmental plasticity in evolution; how ecology impacts development and evolutionary change; and the developmental basis of homoplasy and homology.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram that shows the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities-their phylogeny-based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. A phylogenetic tree, also known as a phylogeny, is a diagram that depicts the lines of evolutionary descent of different species, organisms, or genes from a common ancestor. Phylogenies are useful for organizing knowledge of biological diversity, for structuring classifications, and for providing insight into events that occurred during evolution. Furthermore, because these trees show descent from a common ancestor, and because much of the strongest evidence for evolution comes in the form of common ancestry, one must understand phylogenies in order to fully appreciate the overwhelming evidence supporting the theory of evolution.
Surface anatomy (also known as superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body. It deals with anatomical features that can be studied by sight, without dissection. It is a branch of gross anatomy, along with endoscopic and radiological anatomy. Surface anatomy is a descriptive science. In particular, in the case of human surface anatomy, these are the form and proportions of the human body and the surface landmarks which correspond to deeper structures hidden from view, both in static pose and in motion.
It is the study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a microscope. macroscopic anatomy, involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye. There are many ways to approach gross anatomy:
• Surface anatomy – is the study of general form and superficial markings.
• Regional anatomy – focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk. Many advanced courses in anatomy stress a regional approach, because it emphasizes the spatial relationships between structures already familiar to students.
• Systemic anatomy – is the study of the structure of organ systems, such as the skeletal system or the muscular system. Organ systems are groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner. For example, the heart, blood, and blood vessels form the cardiovascular system, which distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. Introductory texts present systemic anatomy because that approach clarifies functional relationships among the component organs. The human body has 11 organ systems, and we will introduce them later in the chapter.
• Developmental anatomy – deals with the changes in form that occur during the period between conception and physical maturity. Because developmental anatomy considers anatomical structures over such a broad range of sizes (from a single cell to an adult human), techniques used in it are similar to those used in both microscopic anatomy and gross anatomy. The most extensive structural changes occur during the first 2 months of development.
The study of the structure of cells, tissues, and organs of the body as seen with a microscope. Microscopic anatomy deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification. The boundaries of microscopic anatomy are established by the limits of the equipment used. With a light microscope, you can see basic details of cell structure; with an electron microscope, you can see individual molecules that are only a few nanometers across.
A tissue is one of the building blocks of an organism--either animal or plant. An organism is comprised of tissues, which are made up of individual cells. These cells share a similar structure (how they're built) and function (what they do). The study of tissues is a field known as histology. Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and tissues of plants and animals. It is commonly performed by examining cells and tissues under a light microscope or electron microscope, the specimen having been sectioned (cut into a thin cross section with a microtome), stained, and mounted on a microscope slide. Histological studies may be conducted using tissue culture, where live human or animal cells are isolated and maintained in an artificial environment for various research projects. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of histological stains. Histology is an essential tool of biology and medicine.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern, size), i.e. external morphology (or eidonomy), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs, i.e. internal morphology (or anatomy).
All vertebrates have a similar basic body plan and at some point in their lives, (mostly in the embryonic stage), share the major chordate characteristics; a stiffening rod, the notochord; a dorsal hollow tube of nervous material, the neural tube; pharyngeal arches; and a tail posterior to the anus. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column and is above the notochord and the gastrointestinal tract is below it. Nervous tissue is derived from the ectoderm, connective tissues are derived from mesoderm, and gut is derived from the endoderm. At the posterior end is a tail which continues the spinal cord and vertebrae but not the gut. The mouth is found at the anterior end of the animal, and the anus at the base of the tail. The defining characteristic of a vertebrate is the vertebral column, formed in the development of the segmented series of vertebrae. In most vertebrates the notochord becomes the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs. However, a few vertebrates, such as the sturgeon and the coelacanth retain the notochord into adulthood. Jawed vertebrates are typified by paired appendages, fins or legs, which may be secondarily lost. The limbs of vertebrates are considered to be homologous because the same underlying skeletal structure was inherited from their last common ancestor. This is one of the arguments put forward by Charles Darwin to support his theory of evolution.
Invertebrates constitute a vast array of living organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular eukaryotes such as Paramecium to such complex multicellular animals as the octopus, lobster and dragonfly. They constitute about 95% of the animal species. By definition, none of these creatures has a backbone. The cells of single-cell protozoans have the same basic structure as those of multicellular animals but some parts are specialised into the equivalent of tissues and organs. Locomotion is often provided by cilia or flagella or may proceed via the advance of pseudopodia, food may be gathered by phagocytosis, energy needs may be supplied by photosynthesis and the cell may be supported by an endoskeleton or an exoskeleton. Some protozoans can form multicellular colonies.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern, size), i.e. external morphology (or eidonomy), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs, i.e. internal morphology (or anatomy).Evolutionary morphology embraces the “how” of morphology, such as the mechanics of how an animal can bite into a hard object with extraordinary force without knocking out its own teeth or shattering them. It also embraces the “why” of morphology, retracing the patterns of evolution in features to understand how a few basic morphological patterns gave rise to the stunning diversity we see in groups from molluscs to mammals to plants. The “how” and the “why” combine to reveal the ways in which organismal evolution has transformed structures and promoted novel functions as well as patterns of association between morphological features and either geographic area or habitat.
Pathologic anatomy is the all anatomic changes resulting from disease. Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues.
Eidonomy is the study of the external appearance of an organism. It is thus the opposite of anatomy, which refers to internal morphology. While predominant early in the history of biology it is little studied in particular anymore as it is ripe with the effects of convergent evolution . It thus yields less new information about organisms than anatomy, and therefore the external appearance of lifeforms is usually studied as part of general investigations in morphology, e.g. in the context of phylogenetic research.
Cytogenetics is an exciting, dynamic field of study which analyzes the number and structure of human and animal chromosomes. Changes that affect the number and/or structure of the chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and how the body functions. Chromosomal abnormalities can happen when egg and sperm cells are being made, during early fetal development, or after birth in any cell in the body. Changes to chromosome structure can disrupt genes, causing the proteins made from disrupted genes to be missing or faulty. Depending on size, location, and timing, structural changes in chromosomes can lead to birth defects, syndromes or even cancer. Alternatively, some chromosomal changes may have no effect on a person’s health.
Protozoology is that branch of zoology which is concerned with the group of animals known as the Protozoa. Protozoa are unicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that have been studied for more than 300 years, at first as microscopic curiosities, later as organisms causing disease and more recently as important components of ecosystems. Protozoans are common, and they are of particular interest to man because they cause such diseases as malaria, amoebic dysentery, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Certain protozoans known as foraminifera, which have an extensive fossil record, are useful to geologists in locating petroleum deposits. Protozoans also serve as experimental organisms in many studies of cell and molecular biology.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop, and is synonymous with ontogeny. In animals most development occurs in embryonic life, but it is also found in regeneration, asexual reproduction and metamorphosis, and in the growth and differentiation of stem cells in the adult organism. In plants, development occurs in embryos, during vegetative reproduction, and in the normal outgrowth of roots, shoots and flowers.
Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material.The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being an oversimplified picture of molecular biology, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field.