MTB is a very successful human pathogen that can persist and survive in the host in spite of an intense immune response. It has been currently shown that many host-derived immune factors are involved in the mounting of a protective immune response against MTB. Components such as T lymphocytes (TL) that are fundamentally responsible for cellular immune responses (via Th1 lymphocyte activation), cytokines, antigen presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells), signaling proteins (co-stimulatory molecules, transcription factors), all play a pivotal role in the regulation and activation of TL against the Mycobacterium and all display key potential elements that may modulate the hosts immune response. The functions of each component of immune response activation against mycobacteria have not been completely elucidated, although it appears that it may be different in acute vs. chronic infection.
Last date updated on December, 2020