A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Nanoparticle research is currently an area of intense scientific research, due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, and electronic fields. Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nano-scale this is often not the case. Size-dependent properties are observed such as quantum confinement in semiconductor particles, surface plasmon resonance in some metal particles and superparamagnetism in magnetic materials. The properties of materials change as their size approaches the nanoscale and as the percentage of atoms at the surface of a material becomes significant. For bulk materials larger than one micrometre the percentage of atoms at the surface is minuscule relative to the total number of atoms of the material. Online journals follow a systematic pattern with a particular style which is universally followed to avoid confusion. All the information should be unbiased, readily proven and can be challenged in any kind of situation. Each and every fact should be made clear by providing proper evidence thereby encouraging true scholar and safeguarding copyrights. Following such stringent rules and evaluation can be costly, so publishers charge from the users who access the information, but, it will obstruct research as young researchers can afford it. Alternatively, fees can be charged from the researcher who has made the research and it can be free to the user who is interested in research thus, increasing the popularity and reputation to scholar and enhancing knowledge to user.
Last date updated on July, 2014