Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics Prevalences of hematuria, defined as dipstick of trace or greater and 50 red blood cells/microL or greater, age- and sex-adjusted to the Zuni population aged 5 years or older, were 33.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.7 to 35.6) and 17.8% (95% CI, 15.8 to 19.8), respectively. Hematuria of trace or greater was more common among females (40.6%; 95% CI, 37.0 to 44.1) than males (25.1%; 95% CI, 21.8 to 28.4).