Intracranial venous malformations are abnormally enlarged veins in brain. Venous malformations are a type of blood vessel abnormality in the brain or spinal cord.
Approximately 50% of patients present initially with a bleed , often patients with an AVM experience no symptoms, and their AVMs are discovered only incidentally, usually either during an autopsy or during treatment for an unrelated disorder. About 12 percent of people with AVMs will experience symptoms, varying in severity. AVMs can irritate the surrounding brain tissue and cause seizures or headaches. Any of the following symptoms may occur: Seizures, loss of coordination, dizziness , visual disturbances, difficulties carrying out organizational tasks, muscle weakness or paralysis, mental confusion, language problems, abnormal sensations such as numbness, tingling, or spontaneous pain, memory deficits, headaches, dementia, and hallucinations.
The most important goal AVM treatment is to prevent internal bleeding from rupture, because which can lead to stroke / death. However, seizure control or stabilization of progressive neurological deficits are occasionally treatment goals. Though medication may be prescribed, it does not cure AVMs but medications are used to control pain and seizures. The management options for brain AVMs include observation or various treatment techniques, such as endovascular embolization, microsurgical techniques and stereotactic radiotherapy used alone or in combination with varying degrees of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.