Pathophysiology: The bacteria that cause TB can develop resistance to the antimicrobial drugs used to cure the disease. Multidrug-resistant TB is TB that does not respond to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-TB drugs. it is becoming increasingly difficult to treat MDR-TB. Treatment options are limited and expensive, recommended medicines are not always available, and patients experience many adverse effects from the drugs. In some cases even more severe drug-resistant TB may develop.
Statistics: Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. In Netherlandsthe incidence of Tuberculosis reported as 6 cases frequently from 2001-2015.
Treatment of active tuberculosis includes a combination of several drugs including antibacterial and antibiotic medications. Medication treatment can last a long time, as long as six to 12 months, and needs to be taken exactly as directed to be effective in curing tuberculosis.
Major Research: The identification of markers of TB strains that are characteristic of major M. tuberculosis strains families, thus corresponding to more adapted bacilli. Many of them correspond to SNPs affecting DNA repair genes. This opened the way to study genes involved in DNA repair and mycobacterial genome stability. New M. tuberculosis strain markers are being used to differentiate strains within major families and allow the detection of outbreaks.