Rectal prolapse is protrusion of rectal tissue through the anus to the exterior of the body. The rectum is the final section of the large intestine. Symptom severity will increase with the dimensions of the prolapse, and whether or not it spontaneously reduces once defecation, requires manual reduction by the patient, or becomes irreducible. The symptoms are similar to advanced hemorrhoidal sickness. Fecal discharge causing staining of undergarments, Rectal haemorrhage, mucous rectal discharge, Rectal pain, Pruritis ani.
The only potentially curative treatment for complete rectal prolapse is surgery, however in those patients with medical problems that make them unfit for surgery, and those patients who have minima symptoms conservative measures may benefit. Dietary adjustments, including increasing dietary fiber may be beneficial to reduce constipation,and thereby reduce straining. A bulk forming agent (e.g. psyllium) or stool softener can also reduce constipation. Biofeedback retraining may be indicated to help the patient avoid straining during defecation. There is limited evidence that hypopressive exercises may be beneficial in mild pelvic organ prolapse.
Seventy-five patients underwent surgical intervention for rectal prolapse during the study period. The average patient age was 60.8 years. Sixty-two patients (82.7%) underwent perineal-based repair (Altemeier n = 48, Delorme n = 14); eight patients (10.7%) underwent open abdominal procedures (resection and rectopexy n = 4, rectopexy only n = 4); and five patients (6.7%) underwent laparoscopic repair (laparoscopic LAR n = 3, laparoscopic resection and rectopexy n = 2). Average hospitalization was shorter with perineal procedures (2.6 days) than with abdominal procedures (4.8 days) (p < 0.0031). Postoperative complications were observed in 13.3% of cases. With a median follow-up of 39 months (range 6–123 months), there was no mortality for primary repair, a postoperative morbidity occurred in 13% of patients, and the overall rate of recurrent prolapse was 16%