Toxic shock syndrome (STSS) can be defined as a septic shock syndrome resulting from infection with toxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci (GAS) bacteria. It is a rare, potentially fatal illness characterized by high fever, rash, hypotension, multiorgan involvement, and desquamation. The symptoms develop within 8-12 hours after the infection. TSS is a very rare disorder. It affects 1-2 in about 100,000 individuals.. Overall mortality was 30% and was highly associated with TSS. The risk of infection is greater in post-partum women and menstruating women using superabsorbent tampons.
TSS is a medical emergency and can be fatal. Treatments of TSS include cleaning of wounds and remove any foreign bodies, IV fluids administration and antibiotic therapy. In case of unconfirmed suspected TSS broad spectrum antibiotics like clindamycin+carbapenem/beta-lactamase inhibitor/vancomycin must be administered. Aggressive fluid management, ventilation, renal replacement therapy and inotropic support are essential as supportive care. Studies demonstrate that both intravenousimmunoglobulin and clindamycin therapy contribute to a significantly improved survival in Streptococcal TSS. Patients must be educated about proper use of tampons, maintenance of personal hygiene during menstruation.