Typhus results from infection by Rickettsia prowazekii a Gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterium. At least two strains can be distinguished by genetic analysis. One strain is found only in humans the other also occurs in flying squirrels in the United States.Scratching a louse-bite site allows the rickettsia-laden excrement to be inoculated into the bite wound. The rickettsia travel to the bloodstream, and rickettsemia develops. The major pathology is caused by a vasculitis and its complications. Common differentials are: dengue, malaria, typhoid fever, brucellosis, and infectious mononucleosis.
In the Netherlands, about 538 cases of Typhus fever are reported in each year. Almost 8% of the Netherlands population is suffering with Typhus fever, a disease caused by bacteria called Rickettsia typhi or bacteria called Rickettsia felis.Treatment includes antibiotics such as doxycycline, chloramphenicol, Tetracycline. Tetracycline taken by mouth can permanently stain teeth that are still forming. It is usually not prescribed for children until after all of their permanent teeth have grown.