Continence and micturition involve a balance between urethral closure and detrusor muscle activity. Urethral pressure normally exceeds bladder pressure, resulting in urine remaining in the bladder. The proximal urethra and bladder are both within the pelvis. Intra-abdominal pressure increases (from coughing and sneezing) are transmitted to both urethra and bladder equally, leaving the pressure differential unchanged, resulting in continence.
Large studies have indicated that there is a 3% to 11% overall prevalence rate of incontinence in the male population with urge incontinence being the prominent symptom reported in 40% to 80% of patients.
Treatment is keyed to the type of incontinence. The usual approaches are as follows: Stress incontinence - Surgery, pelvic floor physiotherapy, anti-incontinence devices, and medication.
Stem cells, which can develop into many possible cells or organs, are an area of intense study by scientists interested in managing or curing a wide array of serious health conditions. For this study, researchers from Finland and the Netherlands treated five women suffering from stress incontinence with adipose (fat-derived) stem cells combined with bovine collagen gel -- a bulking agent -- and saline solution. The women either didn't want to undergo the mesh procedure, known as midurethral sling surgery, or had undergone unsuccessful mesh implants.