Stenosis means narrowing of an opening, such as a heart valve. Stenosis of the mitral valve limits the forward flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This may cause a back-up of blood and fluid in the lungs. Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients diagnosed with mitral stenosis don't recall ever having the illness.
Causes: Diagnosed with mitral stenosis don’t recall ever having the illness. During rheumatic fever, the valve becomes Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients inflamed. Over time, the leaflets of the inflamed valve stick together and become scarred, rigid and thickened, limiting its ability to open completely.
Symptoms: Many of the symptoms of mitral stenosis, such as shortness of breath and fatigue, result from a back-up of blood in the lungs. Other symptoms of mitral stenosis may include quick weight gain; weakness; dizziness; swelling in the ankles, feet and/or abdomen (edema); and/or heart palpitations (irregular heartbeat).
Treatment: A balloon valvotomy is the preferred treatment for mitral valve stenosis. It is a procedure that widens the mitral valve so that blood flows more easily through the heart. A balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure. A doctor uses a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed mitral valve, a balloon device located on the tip of the catheter is quickly inflated. The narrowed or fused mitral valve leaflets are separated and stretched open as the balloon presses against them. This process increases the size of the mitral valve opening and allows more blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Statistics: The average follow-up time was 14 years, during which 346 persons died, 108 of them due to CVD. Persons with normal (<140 mmHg) resting brachial blood pressure, ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg and exercise blood pressure at moderate exercise level ≤215 mmHg at baseline investigation, had the best prognosis and were taken as the reference category. Among persons with elevated ankle blood pressure (≥175 mmHg) but normal or borderline resting brachial pressure and normal exercise blood pressure (≤215 mmHg) at moderate exercise level the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval) for CVD and total mortality were 2.70 (1.52 – 4.80) and 2.13 (1.58 – 2.85), respectively. Similar and equally significant HRs were observed in persons with both elevated ankle blood pressure and elevated exercise blood pressure, as well as in those persons with elevated exercise blood pressure but ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg. From January 2010 to February 2012, following a multidisciplinary discussion, 17 high-risk patients underwent TVIR using Edwards SAPIEN XT prostheses, via either a transvenous transseptal (n = 8), or a transapical approach (n = 9). Patients were aged 70 ± 16 years, in New York Association classes III/IV. Their mean logistic EuroSCORE was 36 ± 17% and mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score 13 ± 9%. The mean time interval between surgery and repair failure was 7 ± 3 years. Annuloplasty rings were semi-rigid in 14 cases, flexible in 2, and rigid in 1. Manufacturers ring diameters were 26 mm in 4 patients, 27 mm in 1, 28 mm in 9, 30 mm, 31 mm and 34 mm in 1. The predominant failure mode was regurgitation in 12 cases and stenosis in 5. SAPIEN XT diameters were 26 mm in 15 patients, 23 mm and 29 mm in 1. Procedural success rate was 88% (15/17). Emergency surgery was needed in 1 patient due to acute dislodgement of the ring. The degree of mitral regurgitation was reduced to none or mild in all but 2 patients; final mean gradient was 7 ± 3 mmHg. Thirty-day survival was 82% (14/17 patients). At last follow-up (13 ± 5 months), survival rate was 71% (12/17).