Deep vein thrombosis, or deep venous thrombosis, (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein, predominantly in the legs. Non-specific signs may include pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins. DVT often develops in the calf veins and "grows" in the direction of venous flow, towards the heart. When DVT does not grow; it can be cleared naturally and dissolved into the blood (fibrinolysis).
There is a considerable risk of recurrence, post-thrombotic syndrome and death after an episode of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Mortality one year after a venous thrombotic episode has been reported to be 17-22% and 20-25% after 2 years. The risk of dying has been shown to be highest shortly after the VTE event, and usually related to concomitant disease. Moreover, the long-term mortality has also been demonstrated to be high, but available data are limited. In a cohort study, mortality after 8 years was reported to be 13% for patients who survived the first year after an initial deep venous thrombosis (DVT)
The basic treatments for the disease are Anticoagulation, which prevents further coagulation, home treatment, stockings, walking, and repeat imaging and IVC filters, thrombolysis, and thrombectomy. The aims of the physicians are to prevent clot becoming larger, clot becoming lose and traveling to lungs, new clot formation and Post thrombotic syndrome.
Major Research on Disease
The current major research on the diseases are efficacy of low doses of heparin for the prevention of the DVT after a major surgery, accuracy of the clinical assessment for DVT, Decreased plasma levels of activated factor VII in patients with deep vein thrombosis etc.