Diabetic retinopathy (die-uh-BET-ik ret-ih-NOP-uh-thee) is a diabetes complication that affects eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness. The condition can develop in anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar is, the more likely you are to develop this eye complication Diabetic retinopathy is classified into two types:
1. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the early state of the disease in which symptoms will be mild or non-existent. In NPDR, the blood vessels in the retina are weakened causing tiny bulges called microanuerysms to protrude from their walls. The microanuerysms may leak fluid into the retina, which may lead to swelling of the macula.
2. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the more advanced form of the disease. At this stage, circulation problems cause the retina to become oxygen deprived
As a result new fragile blood vessels can begin to grow in the retina and into the vitreous, the gel-like fluid that fills the back of the eye. The new blood vessel may leak blood into the vitreous, clouding vision. Other complications of PDR include detachment of the retina due to scar tissue formation and the development of glaucoma. Glaucoma is an eye disease defined as progressive damage to the optic nerve. In cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the cause of this nerve damage is due to extremely high pressure in the eye. If left untreated, proliferative diabetic retinopathy can cause severe vision loss and even blindness.
Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include: • Seeing spots or floaters in your field of vision • Blurred vision • Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision • Difficulty seeing well at night • • Diabetic retinopathy is detected during an eye examination that includes following tests: • Visual acuity test • Pupil dilation • Fluorescein angiography • Ophthalmoscopy • Digital Retinal Screening Programs • Optical coherence tomography • Computer Vision Approach • Slit Lamp Biomicroscopy Retinal Screening Programs • The disorder can be treated by implementing LASER Photocoagulation(ARGON), CSME-Focal and grid,PDR with HRC-Pan retinal photocoagulation, Other LASER therapies include INTRA VITREAL with VEGF –done by administering Bevacizumab,Ranibizumab, through INTRA VITREAL steroids- Triamcinolone acetonide, PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY.