Dystonia is a disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause slow repetitive movements or abnormal postures. The movements may be painful, and some individuals with dystonia may have a tremor or other neurologic features. There are several different forms of dystonia that may affect only one muscle, groups of muscles, or muscles throughout the body. Some forms of dystonia are genetic but the cause for the majority of cases is not known.
Some early symptoms include: A dragging leg, Cramping of the foot, Involuntary pulling of the neck, Uncontrollable blinking, Speech difficulties. Currently, there are no medications to prevent dystonia or slow its progression. There are, however, several treatment options that can ease some of the symptoms of dystonia, so physicians can select a therapeutic approach based on each individual’s symptoms
• Botulinum toxin.
• Medications The response to drugs varies among individuals and even in the same person over time.
These drugs include: o Anticholinergic agents o GABAergic agents o Dopaminergic agents o Deep brain stimulation (DBS)
• Other surgeries aim to interrupt the pathways responsible for the abnormal movements at various levels of the nervous system. Some operations purposely damage small regions of the thalamus (thalamotomy), globus pallidus (pallidotomy), or other deep centers in the brain.
• Physical and other therapies
The prevalence estimates for primary dystonia range from two to 50 cases per million for early-onset dystonia and from 30 to 7320 cases per million for late-onset dystonia. The total prevalence was 25.4 per 100,000, but the prevalence increased with age from 4.1 (age < 30) to 58.7 (age > 70). The prevalence in subjects of European descent was 28.3 per 100,000, much higher than among first-generation immigrants of Asian and African descent.