Pathophysiology: Leptospirosis is a type of bacterial infection spread by animals. It's caused by a strain of bacteria called leptospira. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. The early stages of the disease may include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, redness in the eyes, abdominal pain, jaundice, haemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes (including pulmonary bleeding), vomiting, diarrhoea and a rash. Leptospiral infection in humans causes a range of symptoms, and some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.
Treatment: Effective antibiotics include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and Doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ceftriaxone should be preferred.Glucose and salt solution infusions may be administered; dialysis is used in serious cases. Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum phosphorus levels may likewise increase to unacceptable levels due to renal failure.
Statistics: Norway rats are frequently infected with leptospires in both tropical and temperate cities. For example, five studies published during the period 2003–2014 report the prevalence of leptospiral infection among urban rats to range between 11.1% (N = 592) in Vancouver, Canada, 16% (N = 127) in Tokyo, Japan, 48% (N = 23) in Santa Fe, Argentina, 65.3% (N = 201) in Baltimore, USA, and 63% to 83% (N = 226) in Salvador, Brazil.However, the methods used to determine infection varied, including combinations of PCR-based detection of DNA from rat kidney samples, serum antibody detection, and isolation or antigen detection of leptospires in kidney, so direct comparison of these results is precluded.