Melanoma is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce melanin — the pigment that gives your skin its color. Your eyes also have melanin-producing cells and can develop melanoma. Eye melanoma is also called ocular melanoma. Causes Melanoma is a very aggressive type of cancer that can spread rapidly. Melanoma of the eye can affect several parts of the eye, including the: Choroid, Ciliary body, Conjunctiva, Eyelid, Iris, Orbit The choroid layer is the most likely site of melanoma in the eye. The cancer may only be in the eye. Or it may spread (metastasize) to another location in the body, most commonly the liver. Melanoma can also begin on the skin or other organs in the body and spread to the eye. Melanoma is the most common type of eye tumor in adults. Even so, melanoma that starts in the eye is rare.Too much exposure to sunlight is an important risk factor. Persons who have fair-skin and blue eyes are most affected.
• Bulging eyes, Change in iris color, Poor vision in one eye, Red, painful eye, Small defect on the iris or conjunctiva.
Treatment for eye melanoma may include: • radiotherapy • surgery • transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) • cryotherapy • chemotherapy eye drops • photodynamic therapy (PDT).
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. Globally, in 2012, it occurred in 232,000 people and resulted in 55,000 deaths. Australia and New Zealand have the highest rates of melanoma in the world. There are also high rates in Europe and North America while it is less common in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. They are more common in men than women.Melanoma has become more common since the 1960s in areas that are mostly Caucasian.