alexa Nicotine dependence | Norway | PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Nicotine Dependence

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  • Nicotine dependence

    Addiction to nicotine does not happen quickly, after using tobacco once or twice; it develops over time. Most smokers go through a series of steps from experimentation to regular use on their way to becoming addicted. Cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (a structure associated with perception and modulation of pleasure) are stimulated directly by nicotine, and these neurons project directly to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). As a result of the widespread neuronal activation, nicotine users experience pleasure, reduced fatigue, increased information-processing ability, reduced anxiety, and other reinforcing effects.

  • Nicotine dependence

    Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007–2012) of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30–66 years in Norway. Results. The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26–6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14–2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model). Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence.In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high.  However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.

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