Stress incontinence is the unintentional or uncontrollable leakage of urine. It is a serious and embarrassing disorder, which can lead to social isolation. Stress incontinence typically occurs when certain kinds of physical movement puts pressure on your bladder. Laughing, sneezing, coughing, jumping, vigorous exercise, and heavy lifting can all cause stress incontinence. Any pressure placed on the abdomen and bladder can lead to the loss of urine. It’s important to remember that the term “stress” is used in a strictly physical sense when describing stress incontinence. Emotional stress is not a factor in this type of urinary disorder.
Antibiotic use in Europe, expressed in defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants, ranges from 10.0 in the Russian Federation, 14.6 in Sweden to 45.2 in Greece, according to 2008 data from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project. The statistics depend on the strength of monitoring systems. In the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland, 5–12% of hospital patients acquire an infection during their stay. Each year, an estimated 400 000 present with a resistant strain, of whom 25 000 die, on average. In addition to causing deaths and increased suffering, AMR has huge economic implications. Multidrug-resistant bacteria in the EU are estimated to cause an economic loss of more than €1.5 billion each year. Resistance is increasing in Europe for some bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Klebsiella , where new resistant mechanisms are emerging and new drugs are not in sight. Treatment for stress incontinence varies according to the underlying cause of your problem.
Medication There are several medications that are very effective in treating patients with stress incontinence. The NIH states that imipramine, an antidepressant drug, can be effective as a treatment method. (NIH) Anticholinergic medications calm the bladder contractions that can also cause stress incontinence. Surgery If you have a severe case of stress incontinence, to the point that it interferes with your everyday life, your doctor may recommend surgery.