Disease pathophysiology: Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum) and bejel (subspecies endemicum).
Disease Statistics: In 2014, there were 189 diagnosed cases of primary, secondary or early latent syphilis compared to 185 cases in 2013. Of the reported cases, 137 men (72 per cent) were infected homosexually (139 cases in 2013) and 52 were infected heterosexually (46 cases in 2013). In 2013, the number of reported cases of syphilis in Norway increased significantly among both MSM and heterosexually-infected men and women, and in 2014, the number of reported cases remained at a high level.Of the 189 cases reported in 2014 there were 172 men and 17 women. Of the 2014 cases, 52 per cent came from Oslo whilst the significant increase of reported cases in Hordaland county was due to increased transmission among MSM (20 cases in 2014). 77 per cent of the 189 cases of syphilis reported in 2014 were born in Norway.
Treatment: The first choice for the treatment for syphilis is intramuscular benzathine penicillin G Doxycycline and tetracycline in alternative choice to those who are allergic to pencillins Resistance to macrolides, rifampin, and clindamycin is often present. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended that a treated person avoid sex until the sores are healed. Major Research: Major Research on Syphilis is conducted by CORDIS.