Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles.
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.Type 2 Diabetes afflicts close to 250 million people in world today, 27 million in the United States alone.
The sex and age standardized prevalence of "known" diabetes (all age groups) was estimated at 2.3%, increasing with age to approximately 8% among the 70 to 79-year-olds. The prevalence was 3.4% among those aged > or =30 years. The estimated increase in prevalence of known diabetes over time was 1.4% per calendar year, with variation between sub-groups.