Pathophysiology: Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory disease which is mainly affects liver. Viral hepatitis is classified as A, B, C, D, E and G. Hepatitis viruses cause liver damage. Inflammation happens throughout liver and hepatocytes are destroyed by cytotoxic cytokines and natural killer cells. Cellular necrosis occur but liver usually able to repair itself and regain complete function if no other complications occur. There are three phases: Prodromal phase, Icteric phase and Recovery phase.
Disease Statistics: Norway is classified as a low prevalence country for hepatitis B virus infection. Vaccination is only recommended for risk groups. The largest risk group accounts for acute hepatitis B.
Treatment: Intravenous rehydration is given as supportive care but no specific emergency treatment is recommended as such. Patients are admitted in conditions of severe complications. Evaluation for hepatic encephalopathy is done. Certain patients may benefit from pharmacologic therapy. Patients are advised to avoid prolonged or vigorous physical exertion until their symptoms improve and maintain adequate hydration.
Research: The above study was presented by Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo showing the epidemiology from 1992-2009.