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Department of Gastroenterological Surgery
Peking University People’s Hospital
Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Medical School of Uludag University
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Oncology Translational Research is an International journal devoted to fostering research investigations which bridge the laboratory and clinical settings. It covers all aspects of research on cancer, from the more basic discoveries dealing with both cell and molecular biology of tumour cells, to the most advanced clinical assays of conventional and new drugs including risk assessment, cellular and molecular characterization, prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment of human cancers with the overall goal of improving the clinical care of oncology patients. In addition, the journal has a strong commitment to facilitating the transfer of knowledge from the basic laboratory to the clinical practice, with the publication of educational series devoted to closing the gap between molecular and clinical oncologists. A broad spectrum of subjects, including the molecular and cellular bases of disease, etiology, pathophysiology, pathology, epidemiology, clinical features, and the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer, will be considered for publication.
Translational Oncology will publish laboratory studies of novel therapeutic interventions as well as clinical trials which evaluate new treatment paradigms for cancer. Case reports describing unusual clinical cases or examples of unique reports dedicated to translational research will also be within the scope of the journal.
The Journal of Oncology Translational research is a Open Access Scientific Journal that offers an interesting publishing platform globally and aims to keep scientists, clinicians and medical practitioners, researchers, and students informed and updated on the ongoing research in the relevant area. Outstanding quality articles are welcome to maintain the highest standard of the journal and to achieve high impact factor.
Journal of Oncology Translational research is using Editorial tracking System for maintaining the quality in peer review process. Editorial tracking is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking system. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Oncology Translational research or by outside experts. At least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.
Carcinomas are cancers or malignancies which are begin in the epithelial tissues. Carcinomas may affect any part of the body and are among the most common types of cancer in adults. Carcinoma spreads by metastasis and often recurs after excision. Carcinomas are classified as adrenocortical carcinomas thyroid carcinomas nasopharyngeal carcinomas malignant melanoma and skin carcinoma.
Clinical Cancer is the field of medicine that is devoted to cancer. Clinical cancer consists of three primary disciplines: medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. A biopsy often is needed to confirm a cancer diagnosis. Biopsies might also be needed to find out if an abnormal spot seen on an imaging test is really cancer spread. During a biopsy, the doctor removes a tumor or pieces of a tumor to be looked at under a microscope.
Cancer epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications to the genome of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Epigenetic alterations are as important as genetic mutations in a cell’s transformation to cancer.
Programmed cell-death (or PCD) is death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in a regulated process, which usually confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle.
The likelihood of developing malignancy, which is the combined result of lifestyle and genetics. Risk estimates for cancer and other diseases are determined by studying large groups of people. Absolute risk refers to the actual numeric chance or probability of developing cancer during a specified time period.
“Epigenetics” refers to covalent modification of DNA, protein, or RNA, resulting in changes to the function and/or regulation of these molecules, without altering their primary sequences. Genetics & Epigenetics topics include bookmarking, DNA methylation, gene silencing, histone modification, genomic imprinting, maternal effects, paramutation, the position effect, reprogramming, transvection, and X chromosome inactivation. All aspects of the study of these phenomena are of interest, including technical and ethical issues.
The tumor microenvironment is often infiltrated by innate and adaptive immune system cells that enable tumors to mimic inflammatory conditions seen in normal tissues. Current molecular cancer research indicates that this tumor-associated inflammation might aid in tumor growth. Inflammatory conditions in selected organs increase the risk of cancer. An inflammatory component is present also in the microenvironment of tumors that are not epidemiologically related to inflammation
Genetic instability refers to a high frequency of mutations within the genome of a cellular lineage. These mutations can include changes in nucleic acid sequences, chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy. It is a major driving force for tumorigenesis.
A biopsy is the removal of a sample of tissue or cells so that they can be examined by a pathologist, usually under a microscope. Some biopsies involve removing a small amount of tissue with a needle while others involve surgically removing an entire lump or suspected tumor. Biopsies may also be performed using imaging guidance such as ultrasound, x-ray, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Biopsies are most commonly performed for insight into possible cancerous and inflammatory conditions. After the biopsy is performed, the sample of tissue that was removed from the patient is sent to the pathology laboratory. A pathologist is a physician who specializes in diagnosing diseases (such as cancer) by examining tissue under a microscope. The types of biopsies include: Fine needle aspiration biopsy, Core needle biopsy, Vacuum-assisted biopsy, Image-guided biopsy, Surgical biopsy, Bone marrow biopsy etc.
Chemotherapeutic agents or anti-cancer drugs are used as a part of a standardized regimen in a category of cancer treatment known as chemotherapy. It is the one of the major categories of medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer that may be given with combination of drugs with a curative intent or to reduce symptoms. In chemotherapy the drugs are introduced into the blood stream and therefore they can address cancer at any anatomic location in the body this constitutes a systematic therapy.
It is often used in conjunction with other modalities such as radiation therapy, surgery etc. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may then lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated.
Computerized Tomography is a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross-sectional scans along a single axis. Computerized tomography is more commonly known by its abbreviated names, CT scan or CAT scan. A CT scan is used to define normal and abnormal structures in the body and/or assist in procedures by helping to accurately guide the placement of instruments or treatments. The technique is painless and can provide extremely accurate images of body structures in addition to guiding the radiologist in performing certain procedures, such as biopsies of suspected cancers, removal of internal body fluids for various tests, and the draining of abscesses which are deep in the body. CT is regarded as a moderate- to high-radiation diagnostic technique. The improved resolution of CT has permitted the development of new investigations, which may have advantages; compared to conventional radiography, for example, CT angiography avoids the invasive insertion of a catheter. Today most CT systems are capable of "spiral" (also called "helical") scanning as well as scanning in the formerly more conventional "axial" mode. In addition, many CT systems are capable of imaging multiple slices simultaneously.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention. Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. X-ray based methods of medical imaging include conventional X-ray, computed tomography (CT) and mammography. To enhance the X-ray image, contrast agents can be used for example for angiography examinations. Molecular imaging is used in nuclear medicine and uses a variety of methods to visualize biological processes taking place in the cells of organisms. Small amounts of radioactive markers, called radiopharmaceuticals, are used for molecular imaging. Other types of medical imaging are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging. Unlike conventional X-ray, CT and Molecular Imaging, MRI and ultrasound operate without ionizing radiation. MRI uses strong magnetic fields, which produce no known irreversible biological effects in humans.
Tumors are supplied primarily by the arteries. Through these vessels we can inject either liquids/particles loaded with either chemotherapy or radioactive substances. These treatments can be effective versus both primary tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma as well as metastatic tumors including neuroendocrine tumor, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, uveal melanoma and other selected areas. Oncologic interventional radiology uses Ablation process where we can destroys tumors by either achieving extreme temperatures after the target tumor is punctured with one or more applicators under ultrasound or CT guidance.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field and radio frequency pulses connected with a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD.
Vaccines are one of the most effective methods of controlling infectious disease. Although vaccination has been used for centuries, the technologies are largely empirical with little understanding of the underlying immunological principles and physiological mechanisms. In general, a vaccine strategy is composed of a method to deliver target antigens or epitopes to the immune system and an immune-stimulating adjuvant to trigger an immune response.
A monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, was approved as antiangiogenic therapy. Antiangiogenesis therapy is one of two types of drugs in a new class of medicines that restores health by controlling blood vessel growth.The other medication is called pro-angiogenic therapy. Antiangiogenic therapy inhibits the growth of new blood vessels. Because new blood vessel growth plays a critical role in many disease conditions, including disorders that cause blindness, arthritis, and cancer.
Cancer Gene Therapy is the vital quality and cell treatment asset for disease specialists and clinicians, staying up with the latest with the most recent improvements in quality and cell treatments for growth.
Immunotherapy, Cancer gene therapy and quality exchange. Immunotherapy utilizes hereditarily adjusted cells and viral particles to animate the resistant framework to devastate tumor cells. Late clinical trials of second and third era immunizations have demonstrated empowering results with an extensive variety of growths, including lung tumor, pancreatic disease, prostate malignancy and dangerous melanoma.
Cancer Gene Therapy, which utilizes viral particles that repeat inside of the growth cell to bring about cell demise.
Radiotherapy utilizes radiation, for example, x-rays, gamma rays, electron shafts or protons, to execute or harm disease cells and prevent them from developing and duplicating. to kill or damage cancer cells and stop them from growing and multiplying. It is a localized treatment, which means it generally only affects the part of the body where the radiation is directed.
Radiotherapy slaughters tumor cells by harming their DNA, the particles inside cells that convey Hereditary data and pass it starting with one era then onto the next.
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